Antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract and fractions of Doenjang in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages
Patrinia scabiosaefolia (PS) has been used for curing various types of inflammatory-related disorders. However, the precise mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of PS remains unclear. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of several fractions isolated from the PS in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction of PS (EAPS) concentration highly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and IL-6 productions without a cytotoxic effect on RAW 264.7 cells. EAPS inhibited the expressions of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein and their mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Particularly, EAPS suppressed the level of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, which was linked with the suppression of LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65 at serine 276 and p65 translocation into nuclei, but not MAPK signaling. In addition, treatment with EAPS inhibited the production of TNF-α in LPS-injected mice and suppressed the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated splenocytes from BALB/c mice. Therefore, we demonstrate here that Patrinia scabiosaefolia potentially inhibits the biomarkers related to inflammation through the blocking of NF-κB p65 activation, and it may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.