Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of the human smile: a nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis.

  title={Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of the human smile: a nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis.},
  author={Fritz Strack and L. L. Martin and Sabine Stepper},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={54 5},
We investigated the hypothesis that people's facial activity influences their affective responses. Two studies were designed to both eliminate methodological problems of earlier experiments and clarify theoretical ambiguities. This was achieved by having subjects hold a pen in their mouth in ways that either inhibited or facilitated the muscles typically associated with smiling without requiring subjects to pose in a smiling face. Study 1's results demonstrated the effectiveness of the… 

Figures and Tables from this paper


This case study is a partial replication of an original experiment by Strack et al. (1988). It examines the understanding of the facial feedback hypothesis. For this experiment, participants were

Facilitating the Furrowed Brow: An Unobtrusive Test of the Facial Feedback Hypothesis Applied to Unpleasant Affect.

Evidence is provided, using a new and unobtrusive manipulation, that facial feedback operates for unpleasant affect to a degree similar to that previously found for pleasant affect.

Duchenne smile, emotional experience, and autonomic reactivity: a test of the facial feedback hypothesis.

The results support the facial feedback hypothesis and suggest that facial feedback has more powerful effects when facial configurations represent valid analogs of basic emotional expressions.

The Faclal Feedback Hypothesis in Human Interaction

In theory and research on human emotional response, the facial feedback hypothesis (FFH) has held a special place because its claims are both counterintuitive and controversial. In this article,

Investigating the Effects of Embodiment on Emotional Categorization of Faces and Words in Children and Adults

The results of this series of experiments suggest that embodiment effects either do not significantly impact valence-based categorization or are not strong enough to be detected by the approach considering the sample size in the present study.

The Voluntary Facial Action Technique: A Method to Test the Facial Feedback Hypothesis

According to the facial feedback hypothesis, facial muscles do not only express emotions, they also have the ability to modulate subjective experiences of emotions and to initiate emotions. This

The Effect of Facial Expressions on the Evaluation of Ambiguous Statements

The present experiment adapted the “Voluntary Facial Action” (VFA) technique (Dimberg & Söderkvist, 2011) to study the effect of facial expressions on the interpretation of ambiguity. This required

Separate and combined effects of facial expressions and bodily postures on emotional feelings

The results of numerous experimental studies have provided ample evidence for William James' theory that emotional conduct is a sufficient condition for the occurrence of emotional feelings. Two

Attention to Emotion and Non-Western Faces: Revisiting the Facial Feedback Hypothesis

The findings indicate that (1) the facial feedback process can occur in contexts beyond those in which the phenomenon has previously been studied, and (2) aspects of emotion regulation, such as Attention to Emotion can interfere with the facial Feedback process.

A multi-lab test of the facial feedback hypothesis by the Many Smiles Collaboration.

Following theories of emotional embodiment, the facial feedback hypothesis suggests that individuals' subjective experiences of emotion are influenced by their facial expressions. However, evidence



The real role of facial response in the experience of emotion: A reply to Tourangeau and Ellsworth, and others.

The facial feedback hypothesis holds that emotional experiences are derived from facial expressions. Ten published studies indicating that manipulated facial expressions do produce corresponding

Effects of nonverbal dissimulation on emotional experience and autonomic arousal.

The findings support theories of emotion that assume that expressive responses serve a self-regulatory as well as a social-communicative function, and suggest that the self-regulation is mediated neurally, rather than via a process of self-attribution.

Social presence, facial feedback, and emotion.

  • R. Kraut
  • Psychology
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
  • 1982
This study examined the influence of facial feedback on emotional experience and the influence of another's presence on facial communication. To test whether facial expressions regulate the

Facial, autonomic, and subjective components of emotion: the facial feedback hypothesis versus externalizer-internalizer distinction.

Higher levels of facial expressiveness were accompanied by higher levels of autonomic activity and subjective reports of affective experience, and this relationship was obtained in comparisons among experimental conditions as well as correlational analyses within conditions.

Remembering What You Feel: Effects of Emotion on Memory

In two studies, recall was best when subjects' manipulated facial expressions were consistent with the emotional content of material recalled. In both studies, subjects' mood response to manipulated

Effects of being observed on expressive, subjective, and physiological responses to painful stimuli.

The attenuation of expressive behavior was accompanied by a general decrease in subjective and autonomic responses to the painful stimuli, and an interpretation is discussed for the effect of observation on expressive behavior and for the relationships observed among expressive, autonomic, and subjective indices of pain.

Emotional imagery: conceptual structure and pattern of somato-visceral response.

This research examined deductions from a new theory of emotional imagery, testing the hypothesis that the conceptual content processed during imagery determines the amplitude and pattern of coincident efferent activity.

Mood and memory.

  • G. Bower
  • Psychology
    The American psychologist
  • 1981
Experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in subjects by hyp- notic suggestion to investigate the influence of emo- tions on memory and thinking found that subjects exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences.

Happiness and reminiscing: The role of time perspective, affect, and mode of thinking.

Three experiments showed that subjects' ratings of general life satisfaction depended not only on the hedonic quality of the life experiences they happened to recall but also on the way in which they