Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of the human smile: a nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis.

@article{Strack1988InhibitingAF,
  title={Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of the human smile: a nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis.},
  author={Fritz Strack and L. L. Martin and Sabine Stepper},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={1988},
  volume={54 5},
  pages={
          768-77
        }
}
We investigated the hypothesis that people's facial activity influences their affective responses. Two studies were designed to both eliminate methodological problems of earlier experiments and clarify theoretical ambiguities. This was achieved by having subjects hold a pen in their mouth in ways that either inhibited or facilitated the muscles typically associated with smiling without requiring subjects to pose in a smiling face. Study 1's results demonstrated the effectiveness of the… 

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