Inherited forms of bladder cancer: a review of Lynch syndrome and other inherited conditions.

@article{Phelan2018InheritedFO,
  title={Inherited forms of bladder cancer: a review of Lynch syndrome and other inherited conditions.},
  author={Aaron Phelan and Antonio Lopez‐Beltran and Rodolfo Montironi and Shaobo Zhang and Maria Rosaria Raspollini and Monica Cheng and Hristos Z. Kaimakliotis and Michael O Koch and Liang Cheng},
  journal={Future oncology},
  year={2018},
  volume={14 3},
  pages={
          277-290
        }
}
Environmental factors that play a role in the urothelial carcinogenesis have been well characterized. Current research is continuously exploring potential heritable forms of bladder cancer. Lynch syndrome is a well-known inheritable disease that increases the risk for a variety of cancers, including urothelial carcinomas. Screening of patients with known Lynch syndrome is important to evaluate for development of new primary tumors. Further study may provide more information on what level of… 
Lynch syndrome and urologic malignancies: a contemporary review.
TLDR
Patients with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of urologic malignancies, including UTUC and likely BUC and PCA, and established Lynch syndrome-associated genitourinary tumors will necessitate the development of methods to diagnose Lynch syndrome in patients presenting with thesemalignancies.
When to Consider Lynch Syndrome in Non-Colon and Non-Endometrial Malignancies.
TLDR
This review article focuses on extra-colonic and extra-endometrial LS-associated cancers, paying particular attention to any established or currently investigated cancer features that help raise suspicion for LS and potentially lead to its earlier diagnosis.
Application Areas of Traditional Molecular Genetic Methods and NGS in relation to Hereditary Urological Cancer Diagnosis
TLDR
Se sequencing of multigene panels that are specifically aimed at detecting germline mutations in early onset renal cancer, prostate cancer, and bladder cancer seems to be the basic solution for molecular genetic diagnosis of hereditary cancers.
Systematic Review: An Update on the Spectrum of Urological Malignancies in Lynch Syndrome
TLDR
The evidence underpinning certain urological malignancies associated with Lynch syndrome has expanded in recent years, and further investigations are recommended to better clarify associations, particularly with prostate, bladder and testicular cancer.
Epidemiology of Bladder Cancer
TLDR
Smoking cessation, workplace safety practices, weight loss, exercise and schistosomiasis prevention have all been shown to significantly decrease the risk of bladder cancer, which poses a growing burden around the world.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene: pathogenesis and treatment implications in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder
TLDR
The normal structure and function of fibroblast growth factor receptors are reviewed and its role in the development of urothelial carcinoma and major developments in the FGFR-targeted therapy are explored.
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for the Treatment of Bladder Cancer
TLDR
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression detected by immunohistochemistry seems to predict response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with mUC as supported by the objective response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS) associated with the response observed in most clinical trials.
Clinicopathologic analysis of upper urinary tract carcinoma with variant histology
TLDR
The findings suggest that variant histology is a feature of aggressiveness in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract worth it to be reported.
Yeast-based assays for the functional characterization of cancer-associated variants of human DNA repair genes
TLDR
Assays for variants of human genes belonging to the major DNA repair pathways divided in functional assays for human genes with yeast orthologues and human genes lacking a yeast orthologue are described.
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