Inheritance of alcohol abuse. Cross-fostering analysis of adopted men.

  title={Inheritance of alcohol abuse. Cross-fostering analysis of adopted men.},
  author={C. Robert Cloninger and Michael Bohman and S{\"o}ren Sigvardsson},
  journal={Archives of general psychiatry},
  volume={38 8},
The inheritance of alcoholism was studied in 862 Swedish men adopted by nonrelatives at an early age. Both the congenital and postnatal backgrounds of the adoptees modify their risk for alcohol abuse. We distinguish two forms of alcoholism that have distinct genetic and environmental causes and differ in their association with criminality, severity of alcohol abuse, and the frequency of expression in biological mothers. Postnatal milieu determines the frequency and severity of expression of the… 

Psychopathology in adopted-out children of alcoholics. The Stockholm Adoption Study.

Both male and female adoptees had a greater risk of alcohol abuse if their biologic, but not adoptive, parents were alcoholic, and two types of alcoholism were distinguished.

The genetics of alcoholisms and related disorders.

Maternal inheritance of alcohol abuse. Cross-fostering analysis of adopted women.

There was a threefold excess of alcohol abusers among the adopted daughters of alcoholic biological mothers compared with other daughters, confirming the heterogeneity among alcoholics noted in earlier work with adopted sons, which found that the latter type of criminal alcoholics also had no excess of alcoholic mothers.

An adoption study of genetic and environmental factors in drug abuse.

In a sample of 242 male and 201 female adoptees who had been separated at birth from biologic parents, adult adoptee diagnoses of alcohol abuse, drug abuse and antisocial personality were correlated

Replication of the Stockholm Adoption Study of alcoholism. Confirmatory cross-fostering analysis.

Type 1 and type 2 alcoholism are clinically distinct forms of alcoholism with causes that are independent but not mutually exclusive in male adoptees.

Predisposition to petty criminality in Swedish adoptees. II. Cross-fostering analysis of gene-environment interaction.

The interaction of congenital and postnatal antecedents of criminality was studied in 862 Swedish men adopted at an early age by nonrelatives and found low social status alone was not sufficient to lead to criminality, but did increase risk in combination with specific types of genetic predisposition.

Paternal lineage of alcoholism, cohort effects, and alcoholism criteria.

It is found that guilt and binging, features usually attributed to type 1 (milieu-limited) alcoholism, were in fact more prevalent in the family history positive group.

Environmental Differences in Young Men with and without a Family History of Alcoholism

Clear empirical support exists for the notion that the principal risk factor for male alcoholism is a familial history of alcohol abuse in general and paternalalcohol abuse in particular.

Alcoholism and antisocial personality. Interrelationships, genetic and environmental factors.

The results suggest specificity of inheritance of antisocial and alcoholic conditions and the importance of environmental factors in adult adoptees.

Familial distribution of alcohol use: I. Assortative mating in the parents of alcoholics

The distribution of alcoholism and other patterns of alcohol use in the ancestors of 242 alcoholic probands was evaluated by the family history method andortative mating for drinking patterns was indicated by interparent correlations.



Development of alcoholism in adoptees raised apart from alcoholic biologic relatives.

The findings suggest the importance of a genetic factor in alcoholism and are in accord with previous work that failed to show an independent effect of an alcoholic environment in development of adoptee alcoholism.

Implications of sex differences in the prevalences of antisocial personality, alcoholism, and criminality for familial transmission.

We describe three multifactorial models of disease transmission in which the prevalences of a disease differ in men and women. These models demonstrate explicitly how such sex differences may be

Grandsons of alcoholics. A test of sex-linked transmission of alcohol abuse.

No substantial difference between the groups of grandsons was found in frequency of officially registered alcoholism or alcohol abuse, or both, which suggests no sex-linked factor is involved.

Inheritance of Alcoholism in Adoptees

Childhood socialized conduct disorder was significantly higher in those adoptees who later received a diagnosis of alcoholism or suspected alcoholism, and was positively, but not significantly, related to heavy drinking or alcoholism in parents.

A study of alcoholism in half siblings.

A genetic factor seemed to he more closely associated with the development of alcoholism in children who had an alcoholic biologic parent but who were raised by nonalcoholic parent figures.

Some genetic aspects of alcoholism and criminality. A population of adoptees.

  • M. Bohman
  • Psychology
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1978
The hypothesis that there is a genetic explanation for the development of alcoholism, but not for the manifestation of criminality, is supported in a study of 2,000 adoptees and their biological and adoptive parents.

Drinking problems in adopted and nonadopted sons of alcoholics.

It is suggested that environmental factors contributed little, if anything, to the development of alcoholism in sons of severe alcoholics, in this sample.

Alcohol problems in adoptees raised apart from alcoholic biological parents.

It is suggested that genetic factors may play a role in the development of alcohol problems in men separated from their biological parents early in life where one parent had a hospital diagnosis of alcoholism.

Alcoholism and depression in adopted-out daughters of alcoholics.

Daughters of alcoholics had no more depression than controls, indicating that alcoholism in the biological parents did not increase the risk of depression in daughters raised by foster parents.

Alcoholism and antisocial personality

  • M. Virkkunen
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica
  • 1979
Fewer of those who had an antisocial personality were physically dependent on alcohol than those with other personality disorders, and the situation among those who were below the age of 20 was similar.