Inhaled loxapine for rapid treatment of agitation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: an update

  title={Inhaled loxapine for rapid treatment of agitation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: an update},
  author={Kimberly D. Nordstrom},
Agitation is a common presenting problem in emergency departments and treatments currently range from de-escalation techniques to medications, in either oral or intramuscular forms. Oral medications can be diverted and have a relatively long delay of onset. This delay is problematic for agitated patients in that the agitation may escalate prior to onset of action of the medication. This can lead to the need for intramuscular medications or even physical restraints. Regarding intramuscular… Expand
Loxapine Inhalation Powder: A Review of its Use in the Acute Treatment of Agitation in Patients with Bipolar Disorder or Schizophrenia
In conclusion, inhaled loxapine provides a novel new option for use in the acute treatment of agitation in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, combining a rapid onset of effect with a noninvasive route of administration. Expand


Best Clinical Practice With Ziprasidone IM: Update After 2 Years of Experience
In clinical trials, patients treated with ziprasidone IM demonstrated significant and rapid reduction in agitation and improvement in psychotic symptoms, agitation, and hostility to an extent greater than or equal to that attained with haloperidol IM. Expand
Treatment of agitation in bipolar disorder across the life cycle.
Once behavioral control is restored, evidence suggests the combination of orally loaded divalproex sodium with an atypical antipsychotic is associated with more rapid improvement. Expand
Efficacy and safety of loxapine for inhalation in the treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Inhaled loxapine was generally safe and well tolerated and produced rapid improvement in agitated patients with psychotic disorders and may provide a rapid, well-tolerated option for treating acute psychotic agitation. Expand
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It is believed that the use of benzodiazepines as first line treatment for agitation should be extended to include that from acute overdose of other agents, as many common medications taken in acute overdose have toxicity profiles that include anticholinergic, proconvulsant, hyperthermic, and cardiotoxic properties. Expand
Rapid acute treatment of agitation in individuals with schizophrenia: multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study of inhaled loxapine
Inhaled loxapine provided a rapid, well-tolerated acute treatment for agitation in people with schizophrenia as assessed by primary and key secondary end-points. Expand
Rapid acute treatment of agitation in patients with bipolar I disorder: a multicenter, randomized, placebo‐controlled clinical trial with inhaled loxapine
Rapid acute treatment of agitation in patients with bipolar I disorder: a multicenter, randomized, placebo‐controlled clinical trial with inhaled loxapine. Expand
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There is much practice variation in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia on short-term acute inpatient units, where the length of stay may be 1 week or less, and summary statements regarding evidence-supported procedures for short- term inpatient stabilization are developed. Expand
A double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-response comparison of intramuscular olanzapine and haloperidol in the treatment of acute agitation in schizophrenia.
Intramuscular olanzapine at a dose of 2.5 to 10.0 mg per injection exhibits a dose-response relationship in the rapid treatment of acute agitation in patients with schizophrenia and demonstrates a favorable safety profile. Expand
The pathophysiology of agitation.
Generally, agents that reduce dopaminergic or noradrenergic tone or increase serotonergic or GABAergic tone will attenuate agitation, often irrespective of etiology. Expand
Delirium: a neurologist's view--the neurology of agitation and overactivity.
  • L. Caplan
  • Medicine
  • Reviews in neurological diseases
  • 2010
Strokes and other lesions that involve the temporal lobes, fusiform and lingual gyri, caudate nucleus, and anterior cingulum have been reported to cause an acute hyperactive state similar to that found in patients with delirium tremens related to alcohol withdrawal. Expand