Inhaled dry powder apomorphine (VR040) for ‘off ’ periods in Parkinson's disease: an in‐clinic double‐blind dose ranging study

@article{Grosset2013InhaledDP,
  title={Inhaled dry powder apomorphine (VR040) for ‘off ’ periods in Parkinson's disease: an in‐clinic double‐blind dose ranging study},
  author={Katherine Anne Grosset and Naveed Malek and Frazer Giles Morgan and Donald G. Grosset},
  journal={Acta Neurologica Scandinavica},
  year={2013},
  volume={128}
}
‘Off’ periods increase as Parkinson's disease (PD) progresses and the benefits of standard therapy wane. Subcutaneous apomorphine rescues ‘off’ periods, but patient self‐injection and adverse cutaneous effects are sometimes problematic. 
A randomized trial of inhaled levodopa (CVT‐301) for motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease
TLDR
CVT‐301 self‐administered by PD patients to relieve OFF episodes is evaluated, showing potential for rapid onset of action and sudden loss of dose effect and delayed benefit.
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The evidence regarding the efficacy and tolerability of apomorphine, both in its established formulations (subcutaneous intermittent injection and continuous infusion) and in the new preparations currently under investigation are summarized.
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Parkinson’s disease is a chronic, neurodegenerative disease which manifests with a mixture of motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Levodopa is the most effective antiparkinsonian treatment to
An evaluation of subcutaneous apomorphine for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease
  • T. Müller
  • Medicine
    Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • 2020
TLDR
This narrative review summarizes the subcutaneous administration, efficacy, and side effects of the non-ergot derivative dopamine agonist apomorphine following a non-systematic literature research.
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TLDR
This review discusses interesting and novel delivery strategies of apomorphine or esters via oral, buccal, inhalation and a novel pump-patch route, and discusses recent research that has highlighted some important properties of apomorphicine in animal models.
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TLDR
The ongoing progress in the development of analytical methods should be accompanied by new pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of apomorphine metabolism and sites of action in humans, as its biochemistry has yet to be fully described.
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TLDR
Apomorphine is often considered an archetypal dopamine agonist used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and when administered as an acute subcutaneous injection, it induces reliable and rapid relief from OFF periods underscoring its utility as a rescue medication.
Non-oral dopaminergic therapies for Parkinson’s disease: current treatments and the future
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This review discusses and summarizes the most recent developments in this field with a focus on non-oral dopaminergic strategies in development or to be licensed for management of Parkinson’s disease.
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TLDR
This review aims to provide up-to-date information about the newer delivery options for drugs used for Parkinson’s disease and provides a summary of infusion therapy with apomorphine, modifications to other dopamine agonists, various oral formulations of carbidopa/levodopa, inhaled levodOPA, intrajejunal infusion of levod opium, and sublingual apomorphicine.
NON-ORAL DRUG DELIVERY IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE: CURRENT APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE
TLDR
Gastrointestinal problems (GI), the common non-motor symptom, are the most important cause of motor fluctuations that occur as a result of inadequate oral treatment with the progression of PD.
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