Informational versus Controlling Verbal Rewards

  title={Informational versus Controlling Verbal Rewards},
  author={Thane S. Pittman and Margaret E. Davey and Kimberly A. Alafat and Kathryn V. Wetherill and N. A. Kramer},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  pages={228 - 233}
The experiment was designed to test Deci's (1975) informational/controlling analysis with verbal rewards and to assess the joint effects of type of verbal reward and level of surveillance. Compared to a no-reward control, the informational verbal reward enhanced interest in task engagement, but the controlling verbal reward did not. Regardless of type of reward, task interest decreased in linear fashion as surveillance was increased from low to medium to high. 
The effects of rewarder familiarity and differential reward preference on intrinsic motivation
The effects of differentially preferred extrinsic rewards and familiarity of rewarder on subsequent intrinsic motivation for a reading task were investigated in 96 second-, third-, and fourth-gradeExpand
Reinforcement, Reward, and Intrinsic Motivation: A Meta-Analysis
This article reviews research on the effects of reinforcement/reward on intrinsic motivation. The main meta-analysis included 96 experimental studies that used between-groups designs to compareExpand
The Mastery Hypothesis and the Overjustification Effect
This study examined the hypothesis that task mastery is a critical determinant of the effect of reward on intrinsic interest. Because the negative side effects of reward on interest were assumed toExpand
Distinct Motivational Effects of Contingent and Noncontingent Rewards
Motivation by contingent and certain rewards was uncorrelated across individuals, which suggests that there are two separable, independent components of motivation. Expand
School experience, reward characteristics, and intrinsic motivation.
PALLAK, SUZANNE R.; COSTOMIRIS, STEVEN; SROKA, SUSAN; and PITTMAN, THANE S. School Experience, Reward Characteristics, and Intrinsic Motivation. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1982, 53, 1382-1391. The presentExpand
Effects of Reward on Self‐regulation, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity
This article evaluates the effects of two types of rewards (performance‐contingent versus engagement‐contingent) on self‐regulation, intrinsic motivation and creativity. Forty‐two undergraduateExpand
Cognitive Evaluation Theory: A meta-analytic review of the literature
Rewards have been shown to impair performance of a reinforced behavior. The work surrounding these detrimental effects of rewards has not been met with unanimous support. Does this phenomenonExpand
The Differential Effects of Tangible Rewards and Praise on Intrinsic Motivation: A Comparison of Cognitive Evaluation Theory and Operant Theory
  • J. Carton
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The Behavior analyst
  • 1996
Three potential confounding effects are revealed that provide explanations for the effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation that are consistent with principles of operant psychology. Expand
Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues
The results suggest that in general, rewards are not harmful to motivation to perform a task, and the pattern of results indicates that reward contingencies do not have pervasive negative effects on intrinsic motivation. Expand
Effect of Expectancies on Intrinsic Motivation
The present study investigated the hypothesis that expectancies for rewards inherent in a task (working a Soma puzzle) increase intrinsic motivation for the task. Stronger expectancies ofExpand


Increasing and decreasing intrinsic interest with contingent rewards: A test of cognitive evaluation theory☆
The study examined Deci's (Deci, E. L. Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum Press, 1975) hypotheses regarding the effects of contingent rewards on intrinsic task interest. Seventy-two maleExpand
Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation.
Two laboratory experiments and one field experiment were conducted to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, subjects wereExpand
The Effect of Performance-Relevant and Performance-Irrelevant Rewards on Children's Intrinsic Motivation.
KARNIOL, RACHEL, and Ross, MICHAEL. The Effect of Performance-Relevant and PerformanceIrrelevant Rewards on Children's Intrinsic Motivation. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1977, 48, 482-487. An experiment wasExpand
Initiating Play Activity of Children: The Moderating Influence of Verbal Cues on Intrinsic Motivation.
SWANN, WILLIAM B., JR., and PITTMAN, THANE S. Initiating Play Activity of Children: The Moderating Influence of Verbal Cues on Intrinsic Motivation. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1977, 48, 1128-1132. 2Expand
Turning play into work: Effects of adult surveillance and extrinsic rewards on children's intrinsic motivation.
Preschool children engaged in a novel activity in individual sessions. In the expected reward conditions, subjects expected to win a chance to play with highly attractive toys by engaging in theExpand
The undermining and enhancing of intrinsic motivation in preschool children.
A two-phase field experiment was conducted with lower socioeconomic preschool children to test the over justification effect, which proposes that intrinsic motivation will decrease with the additionExpand
If a person who is intrinsically motivated to perform an activity begins to receive external reinforcement for the activity, what will happen to his intrinsic motivation? Previous studies and theExpand