Information loss in black holes

  title={Information loss in black holes},
  author={Stephen William Hawking},
  journal={Physical Review D},
  • S. Hawking
  • Published 18 July 2005
  • Physics
  • Physical Review D
The question of whether information is lost in black holes is investigated using Euclidean path integrals. The formation and evaporation of black holes is regarded as a scattering problem with all measurements being made at infinity. This seems to be well formulated only in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. The path integral over metrics with trivial topology is unitary and information preserving. On the other hand, the path integral over metrics with non-trivial topologies leads to correlation… 

Quantitative approaches to information recovery from black holes

The evaporation of black holes into apparently thermal radiation poses a serious conundrum for theoretical physics: at face value, it appears that in the presence of a black hole, quantum evolution

Remarks on the black hole information problem

String theory provides numerous examples of duality between gravitational theories and unitary gauge theories. To resolve the black hole information paradox in this setting, it is necessary to better

Information recovery from black holes

We argue that if black hole entropy arises from a finite number of underlying quantum states, then any particular such state can be identified from infinity. The finite density of states implies a

About the Black Hole Information Paradox: A Review of S. W. Hawking, Information Loss in Black Holes, hep-th/0507171

The information paradox of black holes was raised in 1975 by S. W. Hawking. His argument was based on the fact that particle emission from a black hole, so called the Hawking radiation, cannot convey

Information Loss and Tunneling Radiation of the Non-Stationary Dilaton-Maxwell Black Hole

Taking the self-gravitational interaction and unfixed background space–time into account, we discuss the tunneling radiation of the Dilaton–Maxwell black hole by the Hamilton–Jacobi method. The

The Black hole information paradox

After a brief reminscence about work with K. Sato 25 years ago on the monopole problem and inflation, a discussion is given of the black hole information paradox. It is argued that, quite generally,

Unitarity and the information problem in an explicit model of black hole evaporation

We consider the black hole information problem in an explicitly defined spacetime modeling black hole evaporation. Using this context we review basic aspects of the problem, with a particular effort

Black holes: Black holes, entropy, and information

Black holes are a continuing source of mystery. Although their classical properties have been understood since the 1970's, their quantum properties raise some of the deepest questions in theoretical

Unitarity, nonlocality, and black hole information

Hawking’s argument for black hole information loss is reassessed. A precise characterization of missing information in outgoing Hawking radiation is the entropy, computed from elements of the density

Quantization in black hole backgrounds

Quantum field theory in a semiclassical background can be derived as an approximation to quantum gravity from a weak-coupling expansion in the inverse Planck mass. Such an expansion is studied for



Thermodynamics of black holes in anti-de Sitter space

The Einstein equations with a negative cosmological constant admit black hole solutions which are asymptotic to anti-de Sitter space. Like black holes in asymptotically flat space, these solutions

Path Integral Derivation of Black Hole Radiance

The Feynman path-integral method is applied to the quantum mechanics of a scalar particle moving in the background geometry of a Schwarzschild black hole. The amplitude for the black hole to emit a

Particle creation by black holes

AbstractIn the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles as if they were


The correspondence between supergravity (and string theory) on AdS space and boundary conformal field theory relates the thermodynamics of super-Yang–Mills theory in four dimensions to the

Eternal black holes in anti-de Sitter

We propose a dual non-perturbative description for maximally extended Schwarzschild Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes. The description involves two copies of the conformal field theory associated to the AdS

Event Horizons in Static Vacuum Space-Times

The following theorem is established. Among all static, asymptotically flat vacuum space-times with closed simply connected equipotential surfaces ${g}_{00}=\mathrm{constant}$, the Schwarzschild

Breakdown of Predictability in Gravitational Collapse

The principle of equivalence, which says that gravity couples to the energy-momentum tensor of matter, and the quantum-mechanical requirement that energy should be positive imply that gravity is

Axisymmetric Black Hole Has Only Two Degrees of Freedom

A theorem is described which establishes the claim that in a certain canonical sense the Kerr metrics represent "the" (rather than merely "some possible") exterior fields of black holes with the