Information and knowledge: an evolutionary framework for information science (Invited paper)

@article{Bates2005InformationAK,
  title={Information and knowledge: an evolutionary framework for information science (Invited paper)},
  author={Marcia J. Bates},
  journal={Inf. Res.},
  year={2005},
  volume={10}
}
Background. Many definitions of information, knowledge, and data have been suggested throughout the history of information science. In this article, the objective is to provide definitions that are usable for the physical, biological, and social meanings of the terms, covering the various senses important to our field. Argument. Information 1 is defined as the pattern of organization of matter and energy. Information 2 is defined as some pattern of organization of matter and energy that has… CONTINUE READING
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