Informal Value Transfer Systems and Criminal Organizations; A Study into So-Called Underground Banking Networks

  title={Informal Value Transfer Systems and Criminal Organizations; A Study into So-Called Underground Banking Networks},
  author={N. Passas},
  journal={Economics of Networks},
  • N. Passas
  • Published 1999
  • Business
  • Economics of Networks
This is the first systematic study into so-called "underground banking" networks. The research was funded by the Ministry of Justice of The Netherlands. It is the study that coined the term "Informal value transfer systems". The main goals of the study were to provide a policy-useful analysis of the way in which such systems operate, the extent to which criminals may resort to their services, and the policies adopted by different governments. The paper reviews hawala, black market peso exchange… Expand
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