Informal Institutions and Comparative Politics: A Research Agenda

  title={Informal Institutions and Comparative Politics: A Research Agenda},
  author={Gretchen Helmke and Steven Levitsky},
  journal={Perspectives on Politics},
  pages={725 - 740}
Mainstream comparative research on political institutions focuses primarily on formal rules. Yet in many contexts, informal institutions, ranging from bureaucratic and legislative norms to clientelism and patrimonialism, shape even more strongly political behavior and outcomes. Scholars who fail to consider these informal rules of the game risk missing many of the most important incentives and constraints that underlie political behavior. In this article we develop a framework for studying… 

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