Influenza vaccines for avian species.

  title={Influenza vaccines for avian species.},
  author={Darrell R. Kapczynski and David Swayne},
  journal={Current topics in microbiology and immunology},
Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1… CONTINUE READING
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