Human parainfluenza virus type 2 V protein inhibits induction of tetherin
The interferon-induced host cell factor tetherin inhibits release of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from the plasma membrane of infected cells and is counteracted by the HIV-1 protein Vpu. Influenza A virus (FLUAV) also buds from the plasma membrane and is not inhibited by tetherin. Here, we investigated if FLUAV encodes a functional equivalent of Vpu for tetherin antagonism. We found that expression of the FLUAV protein NS1, which antagonizes the interferon (IFN) response, did not block the tetherin-mediated restriction of HIV release, which was rescued by Vpu. Similarly, tetherin-mediated inhibition of HIV release was not rescued by FLUAV infection. In contrast, FLUAV infection induced tetherin expression on target cells in an IFN-dependent manner. These results suggest that FLUAV escapes the antiviral effects of tetherin without encoding a tetherin antagonist with Vpu-like activity.