Influenza A Virus Does Not Encode a Tetherin Antagonist with Vpu-Like Activity and Induces IFN-Dependent Tetherin Expression in Infected Cells

Abstract

The interferon-induced host cell factor tetherin inhibits release of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from the plasma membrane of infected cells and is counteracted by the HIV-1 protein Vpu. Influenza A virus (FLUAV) also buds from the plasma membrane and is not inhibited by tetherin. Here, we investigated if FLUAV encodes a functional equivalent of Vpu for tetherin antagonism. We found that expression of the FLUAV protein NS1, which antagonizes the interferon (IFN) response, did not block the tetherin-mediated restriction of HIV release, which was rescued by Vpu. Similarly, tetherin-mediated inhibition of HIV release was not rescued by FLUAV infection. In contrast, FLUAV infection induced tetherin expression on target cells in an IFN-dependent manner. These results suggest that FLUAV escapes the antiviral effects of tetherin without encoding a tetherin antagonist with Vpu-like activity.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043337

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@inproceedings{Winkler2012InfluenzaAV, title={Influenza A Virus Does Not Encode a Tetherin Antagonist with Vpu-Like Activity and Induces IFN-Dependent Tetherin Expression in Infected Cells}, author={Michael Winkler and Stephanie Bertram and Kerstin Gnir\ss and Inga Nehlmeier and Ali Gawanbacht and Frank Kirchhoff and Christina Ehrhardt and Stephan Ludwig and Miriam Kiene and Anna-Sophie Moldenhauer and Ulrike Goedecke and Christina B. Karsten and Annika K{\"{u}hl and Stefan P{\"{o}hlmann}, booktitle={PloS one}, year={2012} }