Influence of the membrane potential on the protonation of bacteriorhodopsin: insights from electrostatic calculations into the regulation of proton pumping.


Proton binding and release are elementary steps for the transfer of protons within proteins, which is a process that is crucial in biochemical catalysis and biological energy transduction. Local electric fields in proteins affect the proton binding energy compared to aqueous solution. In membrane proteins, also the membrane potential affects the local… (More)


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