Influence of the Bonding Electrons on the Scattering of X-Rays by Carbon

@article{Franklin1950InfluenceOT,
  title={Influence of the Bonding Electrons on the Scattering of X-Rays by Carbon},
  author={Rosalind E. Franklin},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1950},
  volume={165},
  pages={71-72}
}
  • R. Franklin
  • Published 14 January 1950
  • Materials Science
  • Nature
DURING the course of an investigation of the scattering of X-rays by Various carbons (incompletely graphitized materials containing graphite-like layer-planes but no three-dimensional crystalline order, and showing, therefore, only (00l) crystalline reflexions and (hk) two-dimensional bands) it was observed that the intensity of the (10) band was always anomalously high. The phenomenon was found to be of perfectly general occurrence for a wide variety of carbons. For microcrystalline graphite a… 
X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction by Graphite Layers
FRANKLIN1 has shown that an anomalous two-fold increase of the X-ray diffraction intensity is observed for the two-dimensional 10 carbon band. She explains this by the fact that the L-electrons are
X-ray studies of some carbonized coals
  • R. Diamond
  • Physics
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1960
This paper describes the results obtained from an X-ray examination of the carbonization products of certain vitrain coals after treatment at .temperatures up to 1000 °C. The methods employed in
The Outer Electron Configuration in Metallic Copper
The effect on the atomic scattering factor of metallic copper of the 3d7.754s14p2.25 outer electron configuration, demanded by the Pauling valence of 5.50, is computed. Approximately a 6 percent
Characterization and mathematical modeling of the structure of Canadian crude asphalt binders by x-ray diffraction
Eight samples of asphalt binder were retrieved from the provinces of Ontario and Alberta, Canada. Then they were pre-processed in thin film (1mm) on glass slides. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to
Comparative Fourier Transform Infrared Investigation of Oltu-Stone (Natural Carbon Black) and Jet
ABSTRACT Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) investigation of Oltu-stone (natural carbon black) and jet revealed several differences between these carbonaceous materials. The band peaking at about
Clay and charcoal composites: characterisation and application of factorial design analysis for dye adsorption
The characterisation of smectite clay, charcoal and prepared clay-charcoal composites was carried out through the X-ray diffractometry, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), simultaneous
Introduction to crystallographic refinement of macromolecular atomic models. Addendum
The first attempt at modelling of deformation density was in 1950 when R. Franklin published her observation of the influence of the bonding effects on the intensities of structure factors and
Photograph 51, by Rosalind Franklin (1952)
TLDR
Photograph 51, or Photo 51, revealed information about DNA ́s three-dimensional structure by displaying the way a beam of X-rays scattered off a pure fiber of DNA.
Grand challenges in cellular biochemistry: the “next-gen” biochemistry
TLDR
It is said that Biochemistry is a young scientific discipline, making its “formal” debut toward the end of the 1900th century, with seminal works by Buchner (1897, Jaenicke, 2007), and these early and important contributions marked the road for future work in the fields of chemical and biochemical structures and associated functions.
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-6 OF 6 REFERENCES
An X‐Ray Study of Carbon Black
X‐ray studies have been made of a number of carbon blacks, prepared under different conditions, and subject to various heat treatments. The patterns were made in evacuated cameras, using Cu Kα
The thermal expansion of graphite from 15?c. to 800?c.: part I. Experimental
The variation with temperature of the a and c unti-cell dimensions of hexagonal Ceylon graphite has been measured over the temperature range 15°-800°c. by the X-ray powder method. At 14°6c.,
The structure of graphite
  • H. Lipson, A. R. Stokes
  • Materials Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1942
A new structure of carbon is proposed in order to account for the occurrence of extra lines on X-ray powder photographs of graphite. It has hexagonal layers similar to those of graphite, but arranged