Influence of systematic coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) variations on Sn whiskering

Abstract

Large variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between Sn and growth substrates provide a highly reliable and fast method to grow whiskers. The CTE effect can be enhanced by thermal cycling during whisker incubation, which is able to reverse reductions in whiskering due to small amounts of dopant atoms in the Sn (e.g., Pb). Investigated… (More)

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