Kinetics of β1-Adrenergic Reaction of the Chick Embryo Amnion
1. The effects of the beta-adrenoceptor agonists isoprenaline and salbutamol on IgE-mediated histamine release from human lung mast cells (HLMC) were evaluated. Both agonists (10(-10)-10(-5) M) inhibited histamine release in a dose-dependent manner and isoprenaline (pD2, 8.3+/-0.1, mean+/-s.e.mean) was more potent than salbutamol (7.3+/-0.1). Moreover, the mean data indicated that salbutamol was a partial agonist when compared with isoprenaline. However, there was a large degree of interexperimental variability because, in 11 of 32 experiments, salbutamol was a full agonist and, in 21 of 32 experiments, a partial agonist relative to isoprenaline. These data suggest that different HLMC preparations possess variable receptor reserves. 2. The effect of the irreversible beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, bromoacetylalprenolol menthane (BAAM), on the inhibition of IgE-mediated histamine release by both isoprenaline and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was assessed. Whereas BAAM (100 nM) antagonized the isoprenaline inhibition of histamine release from activated HLMC, BAAM had no effect on the PGE2 inhibition. Pretreatment of HLMC with the beta2-selective competitive antagonist, ICI 118551 (100 nM), protected against the loss in responsiveness to isoprenaline following treatment with BAAM. 3. Concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 nM of BAAM caused dose-dependent rightward shifts in the dose-response curve for the isoprenaline inhibition of histamine release. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent reduction in the maximal inhibitory response obtained with isoprenaline following treatments with increasing concentrations of BAAM. Although the rightward shifts in the isoprenaline dose-response curves, with a given concentration of BAAM, were similar in all experiments, there was some variability in the depression of the maximal response in individual experiments. Thus, in 6 of 16 experiments, BAAM (1 nM) did not depress the maximal response to isoprenaline, whereas in 10 of 16 experiments there was a depression (7 to 49% reduction) in the maximal response. These data suggest that different HLMC preparations possess variable receptor reserves. 4. Isoprenaline was more potent as an inhibitor in those HLMC preparations in which there was a larger receptor reserve (i.e. preparations in which the maximal inhibitory response to isoprenaline was unaffected by pretreatment with 1 nM BAAM). 5. The influence of receptor reserve on the inhibition by salbutamol of histamine release from HLMC was evaluated. There was a good correlation (r=0.77) between receptor reserve and the maximal response (relative to isoprenaline) obtained with salbutamol. Thus, HLMC preparations with larger receptor reserves were more responsive to salbutamol. 6. Receptor reserve influenced the desensitization of beta-adrenoceptor-mediated responses in HLMC. Cells were incubated (24 h) with isoprenaline (1 microM), washed and then the ability of a second isoprenaline (10(-10)-10(-5) M) exposure to inhibit histamine release was assessed. The pretreatment caused a reduction in the isoprenaline inhibition of histamine release although the extent of desensitization was highly variable, ranging from essentially negligible levels in some preparations to substantial reductions (93% desensitization) in the ability of isoprenaline to inhibit histamine release. There was a reasonable correlation (r=0.59) between receptor reserve and desensitization. Preparations that possessed a larger receptor reserve were more resistant to desensitization. 7. Collectively, these data suggest that a receptor reserve exists for the beta-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of histamine release from HLMC but that the size of this reserve varies between HLMC preparations. Moreover, the size of this receptor reserve may influence the sensitivity of HLMC to beta-adrenoceptor agonists and the susceptibility of individual HLMC preparations to desensitization.