Two mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and their non-mucoid revertants isolated from two different clinical origins (cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis) were grown in various chemically defined media. The extracted exopolysaccharide was characterized by gas-liquid chromatography and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The exopolysaccharide was always heterogeneous, with an alginate fraction and a neutral fraction essentially composed of glucose, galactose, rhamnose and hexosamines. The alginate composition (mannuronate/guluronate ratio and O-acetylation degree) changed according to the carbon source in nutrient media and whether the strains tested were responding differently to these environmental stimuli. In all cases, the best carbon source for the alginate production was glycerol: the two cystic fibrosis strains produced a predominantly O-acetylated alginate whereas only the mucoid bronchiectasis strain produced a polymannuronate exopolysaccharide.