Antagonistic effect of divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the morphological development of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus
Aggregation of the yeast Kluyveromyces bulgaricus is mediated by the galactose-specific lectin KbCWL1. This lectin contains hydrophobic amino acids and its activity is calcium dependent. A specific fluorescent probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid in the free acid form (ANS; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Missouri), was used to study the hydrophobic areas on the cellular surface of K. bulgaricus. Changes in surface hydrophobicity during the growth and aggregation of yeast cells were studied. Surface hydrophobicity increased during growth and depended on the amount of yeast cells in the culture medium. During growth, the size of the hydrophobic areas on the cell surface was measured using ANS and was found to increase with the percentage of flocculating yeasts. Our results strongly suggest that the hydrophobic areas of the cell walls of yeast cells are involved in the aggregation of K. bulgaricus.