Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean.

  title={Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean.},
  author={Xiaodong Zhang and Marlon Lewis and Bruce D. Johnson},
  journal={Applied optics},
  volume={37 27},
The scattering and backscattering properties of bubble populations in the upper ocean are estimated with Mie theory and a generalized bubble size spectrum based on in situ observations. Optical properties of both clean bubbles and bubbles coated with an organic film are analyzed; the results are compared with the corresponding optical properties of micro-organisms of similar size. Given a bubble number density (from ~10(5) to ~10(7) m(-3)) frequently found at sea, the bubble populations… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

The volume scattering function of natural bubble populations
The volume scattering function (VSF) of natural bubble populations is (1) determined from Mie scattering theory, (2) measured by a newly designed volume scattering meter in the laboratory, and (3)
Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean
Breaking waves at the ocean's surface inject bubbles and turbulence into the water column. During periods of rough weather the scales of wave breaking will increase with increasing sea states and
Influence of particles on forward light scattering of air bubbles in water
The properties of light scattering from air bubbles in water have recently attracted considerable attention, but in practical applications such as in underwater detection, submarine imaging etc., we
Monte Carlo simulation of spectral reflectance and BRDF of the bubble layer in the upper ocean.
The results show that bubble populations in clear waters under high wind speed conditions significantly influence the reflection characteristics of the bubble layer.
Resolving size distributions of bubbles with radii less than 30 μm with optical and acoustical methods
[1] Many studies have investigated bubble size distributions in the ocean, but the measured size range does not normally extend to bubbles with a radius below 20 μm. Bubbles smaller than this are
The influence of bubble populations generated under windy conditions on the blue–green light transmission in the upper ocean: An exploratory approach
The “blue–green window” in the ocean plays an important role in functions such as communication between vessels, underwater target identification, and remote sensing. In this study, the transmission
Effects of intermittent entrainment of air bubbles by breaking wind waves on ocean reflectance and underwater light field
Light-scattering properties of air bubbles suspended in water and observational evidence of bubble entrainment by breaking wind waves indicate that bubble clouds may influence ocean reflectance and
Influence of multiple scattering on the measurement of light attenuation by water filled with bubbles
Using a solution of the radiation transfer equation in the small angle approximation, we examine the effect of multiple scattering on the measurement of the light beam attenuation in an aquatic
Optical influence of ship wakes.
The optical variations observed within ship wakes are largely due to the generation of copious amounts of air bubbles in the upper ocean, a fraction of which accumulate as foam at the surface, where


Gas microbubbles: an assessment of their significance to light scattering in quiescent seas
In this study the main features of the light scattering by an air bubble in water are summarized using Mie scattering calculations. The possible contribution of persistent populations of microbubbles
Scattering of light by a coated bubble in water near the critical and Brewster scattering angles
Microbubbles in the ocean may be coated by a thin film of surfactant since such substances can be abundant in natural waters. Such films may affect the optical and acoustical properties of bubbles.
On the spatial distribution of ocean bubbles
Clouds of bubbles generated by breaking waves were detected with a vertically directed high-frequency echo sounder mounted on a submarine. Bubble concentration was inferred from a simple model of the
Bubble Formation and Modification in the Sea and its Meteorological Significance
It is believed that the vast majority of the airborne salt nuclei arise from bursting bubbles at the air—sea water interface. Four natural mechanisms for the production of these bubbles have been
In situ acoustic measurements of bubble populations in coastal ocean waters
A portable pulse-echo, pulse-scatter acoustical system has been used to make in situ measurements of excess attenuation and scatter over the frequency range 20 to 200 kHz, and thereby to infer
Scattering by a bubble in water near the critical angle: interference effects: errata
A physical-optics approximation is derived for light scattering by dielectric spheres with refractive indices less than their surroundings, and it is applied to air bubbles in water. The
Evidence for the importance of bubbles in increasing air–sea gas flux
Two models have been proposed to account for gas exchang between the atmosphere and the oceans: one involves direct transport of the gas through a surface boundary layer1; the other also includes a
Optical glory of small freely rising gas bubbles in water: observed and computed cross-polarized backscattering patterns
Light scattered from spherical bubbles in water manifests an enhancement in the backward direction analogous to the well-known optical glory of a drop. Unlike the glory for water drops, in which the
Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on Sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution.
A spectral model of the inherent optical properties of oceanic case 1 waters with varying chlorophyll concentrations C provides the initial conditions for Monte Carlo simulations aimed at examining the diffuse reflectance directly beneath the surface R and its variations with the solar zenith angle zeta.