Up to today no work has evaluated yet the importance of parameters such Body Mass Index (BMI), cholesterol, triglycerides (TGC) and hepatic percentage of steatosis in the response to therapy with Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a and Ribavirin in patients with recurrent hepatitis C (genotype 1). 30 consecutive prospectively followed patients diagnosed with recurrent HCV were considered candidates for antiviral therapy. Qualitative and quantitative detection of HCV-RNA was performed with the Cobas Amplicor Hepatitis C Virus Test, version 2.0 and the Cobas Amplicor HCV Monitor, version 2.0 (Roche Diagnostics, Branchburgh, NJ, U.S.A.). HCV genotyping was performed by sequencing of the 5 untraslated region (5' UTR) (Visible Genetics TruGene Hepatitis Assay, Toronto, Canada). The observed distribution of BMI, cholesterol, TGC and steatosis were confirmed to be normally distributed by the one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness of fit test procedure. Comparison of BMI, cholesterol, TGC and steatosis between non responders (NR), sustained virological responders (SVR) and sustained biochemical responders (SBR) groups were analyzed by ANOVA with a post hoc Bonferroni test and correlation between variables was tested by Pearson test. The multivariate analysis was performed to estimate the chance of response on basis of the above mentioned variables. In patients with abnormal results in at least two out of four considered variables the chance of no-response was 40 times higher than that of SBR and 96 times than that of SVR. We can conclude how the management of dismetabolism, diet and exercise therapy can improve BMI, liver histology and, therefore, the response to PEG-IFN Alfa-2a and Ribavirin.