Influence of a predator on the optimal foraging behaviour of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.)

  title={Influence of a predator on the optimal foraging behaviour of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.)},
  author={Manfred Milinski and Rolf Heller},
ACCORDING to the principle of natural selection, each individual animal is assumed to maximise its inclusive fitness1. Thus, observed behaviour patterns should result from optimisation processes involving costs and benefits measured in a currency of fitness2,3. Certain foraging strategies have been shown to maximise energy intake per unit time3–6. Maximisation of the rate of energy intake, however, is an optimal strategy only if feeding behaviour does not conflict with other needs, such as the… 
The Effects of a Competitor on the Foraging Behaviour of the Shore Crab Carcinus maenas
It is suggested that crabs maximise their long-term rate of energy intake at a scale far greater than individual foraging events and that in order to minimise claw damage, they typically break shells at a rate below their maximum.
The vast majority of papers on optimal foraging have dealt with small, endothermic birds and mammals . Lacertid lizards are insectivorous ectotherms whose energy requirements and food consumption
Constraints on the foraging behaviour of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.).
Calculations showed the fish ate prey with long handling tim es if the energetic contents of the stom ach had not reached 450 Joules and showed th a t th e best option w as to consum e 5mm prey if given the choice.
A fitness cost of foraging in the guppy
Female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, foraging on zooplankton achieved higher feeding rates and were increasingly more likely to be captured by an ambush predator as their food deficit and prey density increased, and the pre-attack feeding rate of guppie which were captured was higher on average than that of survivors.
Optimal foraging: The influence of intraspecific competition on diet selection
  • M. Milinski
  • Biology
    Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
  • 2004
SummaryThree-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) showed a relative preference for a familiar prey size when hunting for two sizes of Daphnia magna in high density. This result is not
Laboratory and Field Studies of the Effect of Predation Risk On Foraging in Three-Spined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus Aculeatus)
Predation risk affected the foraging behaviour in threespined sticklebacks in such a way that energetic intake was reduced in the interest of predator avoidance.
The influence of daily variation in foraging cost on the activity of small carnivores
All animals were active during a favoured phase of the light-dark cycle and relatively large variations in foraging cost during this cycle had only modest effects on activity.
A review of competitive resource sharing under constraints in sticklebacks
The best strategy from the point of view of the stickleback is different from that of its parasite, and the two parasite species studied, Schistocephalus solidus and Glugea anomala, ought to influence their host's behaviour in opposite directions.
Foraging strategies of two sympatric lagomorphs: Implications of habitat fragmentation
One mechanism that may explain the paradox in the survivorship and habitat use of the two species is the bulginess of their eyes and the distance that they can detect an approaching predator.
Threat-sensitive foraging by larval threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
It is concluded that larval sticklebacks can assess the threat of predation early in their ontogeny and adjust their behaviour accordingly, and increase their foraging as they increased in size relative to the predator.


Optimal Foraging: A Selective Review of Theory and Tests
The general conclusion is that the simple models so far formulated are supported are supported reasonably well by available data and that the author is optimistic about the value both now and in the future of optimal foraging theory.
Optimal prey selection in the great tit (Parus major)
Results are as predicted by the model, but the birds did not as predicted change from no selection in a single step, it is suggested that this is because the birds invest time in sampling to determine the availability and profitability of different prey types.
Experimental analysis of the social value of flocking by starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in relation to predation and foraging
Abstract In groups of ten, indidual starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, spent significantly less time in surveillance than did individuals in smaller groups and responded more quickly than single birds to a
Theory of Feeding Strategies
Natural history is replete with observations on feeding, yet only recently have investigators begun to treat feeding as a device whose performance­ as measured in net energy yield/feeding time or
The Significance of the Gregarious Habit
The gregarious habit occurs so frequently in nature as to indicate that it is an adaptation which must be of great biological significance that it may prove of more general interest than the limited scope of the investigation would seem to imply.
The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I.
  • W. Hamilton
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of theoretical biology
  • 1964
A genetical mathematical model is described which allows for interactions between relatives on one another's fitness and a quantity is found which incorporates the maximizing property of Darwinian fitness, named “inclusive fitness”.
Optimal Foraging: Attack Strategy of a Mantid
A simple model of breadth of diet for a randomencounter situation is developed and compared to the behavior of a real predator, the mantid, Hierodula crassa, to show that this mantid supports the predicted behavior.
Experiments in Group Behavior of Fishes
In verifying Mabius' work, Triplett (1901o) placed two perch in one end of an aquarium and separated them from minnows in the other end by a glass partition, and found that this conditioned-response technique has been fruitfully used in most of the subsequent experiments in the behavior of fishes.
Mathematical Bioeconomics: The Optimal Management of Renewable Resources.
Introduction. 1. Elementary Dynamics of Exploited Populations. 1.1 The Logistic Growth Model. 1.2 Generalized Logistic Models: Depensation. 1.3 Summary and Critique. 2. Economic Models of
On the Fitness of Behavior Sequences
The aim is to demonstrate a method of determining the extent to which behavior maximizes fitness, and to test specifically whether deployment of behavioral options is optimally related to environmental conditions.