Influence of a predator on the optimal foraging behaviour of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.)

@article{Milinski1978InfluenceOA,
  title={Influence of a predator on the optimal foraging behaviour of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.)},
  author={Manfred Milinski and Rolf Heller},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1978},
  volume={275},
  pages={642-644}
}
ACCORDING to the principle of natural selection, each individual animal is assumed to maximise its inclusive fitness1. Thus, observed behaviour patterns should result from optimisation processes involving costs and benefits measured in a currency of fitness2,3. Certain foraging strategies have been shown to maximise energy intake per unit time3–6. Maximisation of the rate of energy intake, however, is an optimal strategy only if feeding behaviour does not conflict with other needs, such as the… Expand
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Optimal foraging: The influence of intraspecific competition on diet selection
  • M. Milinski
  • Biology
  • Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
  • 2004
SummaryThree-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) showed a relative preference for a familiar prey size when hunting for two sizes of Daphnia magna in high density. This result is notExpand
Laboratory and Field Studies of the Effect of Predation Risk On Foraging in Three-Spined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus Aculeatus)
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Predation risk affected the foraging behaviour in threespined sticklebacks in such a way that energetic intake was reduced in the interest of predator avoidance. Expand
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All animals were active during a favoured phase of the light-dark cycle and relatively large variations in foraging cost during this cycle had only modest effects on activity. Expand
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The best strategy from the point of view of the stickleback is different from that of its parasite, and the two parasite species studied, Schistocephalus solidus and Glugea anomala, ought to influence their host's behaviour in opposite directions. Expand
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Threat-sensitive foraging by larval threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
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It is concluded that larval sticklebacks can assess the threat of predation early in their ontogeny and adjust their behaviour accordingly, and increase their foraging as they increased in size relative to the predator. Expand
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