Influence of Hemorrhage on Adrenal Secretion, Blood Glucose and Serum Insulin in the Awake Pig

@article{Carey1976InfluenceOH,
  title={Influence of Hemorrhage on Adrenal Secretion, Blood Glucose and Serum Insulin in the Awake Pig},
  author={Larry C. Carey and Richard A. Curtin and Joseph D. Sapira},
  journal={Annals of Surgery},
  year={1976},
  volume={183},
  pages={185–192}
}
A study was performed to quantitate the adrenal medullary and cortical response to hemorrhage in awake animals bled at different rates and to relate these responses to simultaneous changes in blood glucose and serum insulin. A series of awake pigs were bled either slowly or rapidly of 30% of their calculated blood volume. Infusions of exogenous epinephrine were performed in an additional series of unbled animals and infusions of epinephrine plus hydrocortisone were similarly performed in an… 
Effect of rate of hemorrhage on release of ACTH in cats.
TLDR
The effect of rate of blood loss by acute hemorrhage (H) on adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol plasma concentrations was assessed in anesthetized cats and control animals showed no change in ACTH to the repeated sampling paradigm.
Glucose, insulin and osmolality changes in rats sustaining different hemorrhage volumes.
TLDR
It is postulated that altered glucose-insulin metabolism in haemorrhage may have important consequences for fluid homeostasis, and the rate of bleeding is the fundamental factor steering this effect.
The adrenal medullary response to graded hemorrhage in awake dogs.
TLDR
The results indicate that the adrenal medullary system appears to have the potential to produce a memory of earlier stimuli, since the response to a small hemorrhages is potentiated if the hemorrhage is preceded by 24 h by a moderate hemorrhage.
Adrenocorticotropin response to graded blood loss in the cat.
TLDR
To assess the early endocrine and physiological responses to rapid blood loss, adult cats anesthetized with chloralose-urethan sustained transient hemorrhage of different magnitudes for a 3-min duration were anesthetics and plasma volume determination by dye dilution or on per unit body weight basis.
Potentiation of hemorrhage-evoked catecholamine release by prior blood loss in cats.
TLDR
The data indicate that the priming effect of prior blood loss on H evoked catecholamine release requires an initial blood loss of 20% of total blood volume; occurs rapidly, as it is seen by 90 min after the initial H period; and affects epinephrine and norepinephrine similarly.
The Response of the Awake Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) to Acute Blood Loss
TLDR
It is suggested that human hypertensive disease constitutes a considerable risk factor in connection with acute haemorrhage.
Physiologic Aspects of porcine Hemorrhage. II. Alterations in Heart Rate and Arterial Pressure during Fifty Percent Blood Volume Loss in the Conscious Animal.
TLDR
A porcine animal model, designed to simulate physiologic characteristics of the combat casualty, was used to assess the effects of severe blood loss on the heart rate and arterial pressures in the absence of anesthesia or other interventions, and studies of severe hemorrhage in the recumbent conscious pig may provide reliable physiological information which will be useful in recognizing the consequences of massive hemorrhages in humans.
Plasma glucagon levels in haemorrhagic shock
TLDR
It is suggested that the release of glucagon in haemorrhagic shock is mediated by sympathetic stimulation of the alpha cell and that the rise in glucagon is in part responsible for the hyperglycaemia which is found in shock.
51Cr EDTA determinations of the extracellular fluid volume in hemorrhage: a study with fed and starved rats.
TLDR
It is concluded that fed rats mobilised intracellular fluid to the interstitium in hemorrhage, whereas, starved animals did not, and this finding of variable fluid homeostasis is ascribed to the different nutritional status of the animals investigated, and has considerable implications.
...
...