Inflammatory intrathecal profiles and cortical damage in multiple sclerosis

  title={Inflammatory intrathecal profiles and cortical damage in multiple sclerosis},
  author={Roberta Magliozzi and Owain W. Howell and Richard S. Nicholas and Carolina Cruciani and Marco Castellaro and Chiara Romualdi and Stefania Rossi and Marco Pitteri and Maria Donata Benedetti and Alberto Gajofatto and Francesca Benedetta Pizzini and Stefania Montemezzi and Sarah Rasia and Ruggero Capra and Alessandra Bertoldo and Francesco Facchiano and Salvatore Monaco and Richard Reynolds and Massimiliano Calabrese},
  journal={Annals of Neurology},
Gray matter (GM) damage and meningeal inflammation have been associated with early disease onset and a more aggressive disease course in multiple sclerosis (MS), but can these changes be identified in the patient early in the disease course? 
Meningeal inflammation and cortical demyelination in acute multiple sclerosis
More is needed to know about how cortical demyelination, neurodegeneration, and meningeal inflammation contribute to pathology at early stages of MS to better predict long‐term outcome.
Cortical Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis and Inflammatory Cytokines in CSF
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are more likely to have early onset aggressive disease if they have grey matter damage and meningeal
A surface‐in gradient of thalamic damage evolves in pediatric multiple sclerosis
It is assessed how early in the multiple sclerosis course a "surface‐in" process of injury suggesting progressive biology may begin, which reportedly exhibits a gradient of damage from the surface inward.
Cortical and meningeal pathology in progressive multiple sclerosis: a new therapeutic target?
The state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives and the development of strategies to discover new therapeutic approaches are addressed, especially for the progressive forms of multiple sclerosis.
Accumulation of meningeal lymphocytes correlates with white matter lesion activity in progressive multiple sclerosis
The findings support the involvement of meningeal lymphocytes in subpial cortical injury and point to a potential link between inflammatory subpial cortex demyelination and pathological mechanisms occurring in the subcortical WM.
Intrathecal Inflammation in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
A comprehensive review on the role of intrathecal inflammation compartmentalized to CNS and non-neural tissues in progressive MS is provided.
Iron homeostasis, complement, and coagulation cascade as CSF signature of cortical lesions in early multiple sclerosis
This work aimed to investigate a detailed proteomic CSF profiling which is able to reflect cortical damage in early MS.
Meningeal inflammation changes the balance of TNF signalling in cortical grey matter in multiple sclerosis
The inflammatory milieu generated in the subarachnoid space of the multiple sclerosis meninges by infiltrating immune cells leads to increased demyelinating and neurodegenerative pathology in the underlying grey matter due to changes in the balance of TNF signalling.
B cell rich meningeal inflammation associates with increased spinal cord pathology in multiple sclerosis
It is shown that the presence of lymphoid‐like structures in the forebrain is associated with a profound spinal cord pathology and local B cell rich meningeal inflammation associates with the extent of cord pathology, which supports a principal role for B cells in sustaining inflammation and tissue injury throughout the CNS in the progressive disease stage.
MRI of cortical lesions and its use in studying their role in MS pathogenesis and disease course
It has been proposed that a combined neuropathology, imaging and molecular approach may help to define a more detailed characterization and precise assessment of the heterogeneous features of GM injury and inflammation in MS.


A Gradient of neuronal loss and meningeal inflammation in multiple sclerosis
Evaluated the cellular substrates of the cortical damage to understand the role of meningeal inflammation in MS pathology and identified ectopic B‐cell follicle‐like structures in the meninges.
Meningeal T cells associate with diffuse axonal loss in multiple sclerosis spinal cords
A link between diffuse axonal loss and diffuse inflammation has been established in the brain of patients with progressive multiple sclerosis, and whether such a link could be similarly demonstrated in the spinal cord of patientsWith progressive MS is sought.
The topograpy of demyelination and neurodegeneration in the multiple sclerosis brain
A topographic map of the frequency with which different brain regions are affected by demyelination and neurodegeneration is provided, and it is shown that demyelsinations involve inflammatory as well as vascular changes.
Gray matter atrophy is related to long‐term disability in multiple sclerosis
To determine the relation of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) brain volumes, and WM lesion load, with clinical outcomes 20 years after first presentation with clinically isolated syndrome
Extensive grey matter pathology in the cerebellum in multiple sclerosis is linked to inflammation in the subarachnoid space
This work assessed the extent of meningeal inflammation of the cerebellum, another structure with a deeply folded anatomy, to better understand the association between subarachnoid inflammation and grey matter pathology in progressive MS.
Exploring the origins of grey matter damage in multiple sclerosis
Histological, immunological and neuroimaging studies have provided new insight in this rapidly expanding field, and form the basis of the most recent hypotheses on the pathogenesis of grey matter damage.
Meningeal inflammation plays a role in the pathology of primary progressive multiple sclerosis.
The data suggest that generalized diffuse meningeal inflammation and the associated inflammatory milieu in the subarachnoid compartment plays a role in the pathogenesis of cortical grey matter lesions and an increased rate of clinical progression in primary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Meningeal inflammation is widespread and linked to cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis.
The findings suggest that meningeal infiltrates may play a contributory role in the underlying subpial grey matter pathology and accelerated clinical course, which is exacerbated in a significant proportion of cases by the presence of B cell follicle-like structures.