Inflammatory activation: cardiac, renal, and cardio-renal interactions in patients with the cardiorenal syndrome


Although inflammation is a physiologic response designed to protect us from infection, when unchecked and ongoing it may cause substantial harm. Both chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are known to cause elaboration of several pro-inflammatory mediators that can be detected at high concentrations in the tissues and blood stream… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s10741-011-9261-3


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