Inferring event stream abstractions

  title={Inferring event stream abstractions},
  author={Sean Kauffman and Klaus Havelund and Rajeev Joshi and Sebastian Fischmeister},
  journal={Formal Methods in System Design},
We propose a formalism for specifying event stream abstractions for use in spacecraft telemetry processing. Our work is motivated by the need to quickly process streams with millions of events generated e.g. by the Curiosity rover on Mars. The approach builds a hierarchy of event abstractions for telemetry visualization and querying to aid human comprehension. Such abstractions can also be used as input to other runtime verification tools. Our notation is inspired by Allen’s Temporal Logic, and… 
Monitoring First-Order Interval Logic
This work proposes a formalism that extends Allen’s logic into a first-order logic that allows quantification over intervals; in addition, intervals can carry data.
Event stream abstraction using nfer: demo abstract
The open source implementation of nfer, a language and system for abstracting event streams, is proposed to demonstrate, which is applicable to a wide variety of cyber-physical systems, and supports both manual and mined specifications.
The Complexity of Evaluating nfer
This work provides the first complexity analysis of nfer evaluation, i.e., the problem of deciding whether a given interval is generated by applying rules, and provides a polynomial time algorithm for the most practical case, which is minimality with finite data.
Runtime Verification of Hierarchical Decentralized Specifications
This work expands on the limitations of existing tools and approaches when meeting the challenges introduced by concurrency and ensure that concurrency needs to be taken into account by considering partial orders in traces.
A taxonomy for classifying runtime verification tools
This work classify RV tools within a high-level taxonomy of concepts and surveys the existing RV tools and, where possible with the support of tool authors, classify them according to the taxonomy.
Palisade: A framework for anomaly detection in embedded systems
Introduction to the special issue on runtime verification
This article introduces the extended versions of selected papers from the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Runtime Verification (RV 2016) held in Madrid, Spain, in
Comparing Two Methods for Checking Runtime Properties
  • G. Holzmann
  • Computer Science
    Formal Methods in Outer Space
  • 2021


nfer - A Notation and System for Inferring Event Stream Abstractions
This work proposes a notation for specifying event stream abstractions for use in spacecraft telemetry processing, inspired by Allen's Temporal Logic, and provides a rule-based declarative way to express event abstractions.
Experience with Rule-Based Analysis of Spacecraft Logs
The use of the rule-based runtime verification system LogFire is used for generating abstract events from the concrete events in logs, followed by a visualization of these abstract events using the D3 visualization framework.
Comprehension of Spacecraft Telemetry Using Hierarchical Specifications of Behavior
A tool for processing spacecraft telemetry that allows ground operators to impose structure on received telemetry in order to achieve a better comprehension of system state and is completely general and can be applied to any system that generates telemetry such as event logs.
The CQL continuous query language: semantic foundations and query execution
This paper presents the structure of CQL's query execution plans as well as details of the most important components: operators, interoperator queues, synopses, and sharing of components among multiple operators and queries.
Rule Systems for Run-time Monitoring: from Eagle to RuleR
RuleR is introduced, a primitive conditional rule-based system, which has a simple and easily implemented algorithm for effective run-time checking, and into which one can compile a wide range of temporal logics and other specification formalisms used for run- time verification.
LOLA: runtime monitoring of synchronous systems
A specification language and algorithms for the online and offline monitoring of synchronous systems including circuits and embedded systems, and a class of specifications, characterized syntactically, for which the algorithm's memory requirement is independent of the length of the input streams.
Quantified Event Automata: Towards Expressive and Efficient Runtime Monitors
This work introduces a new formalism for concisely capturing expressive specifications with parameters that is more expressive than the currently most efficient techniques while at the same time allowing for optimizations.
TraceContract: A Scala DSL for Trace Analysis
It is argued that for certain forms of trace analysis the best weapon is a high level programming language augmented with constructs for temporal reasoning, and SCALA's combination of object oriented and functional programming features makes it an ideal host language for such an API.
Collecting Statistics Over Runtime Executions
An extension to linear-time temporal logic (LTL) that combines the temporal specification with the collection of statistical data is presented and a simple and efficient query evaluation algorithm is obtained.
MarQ: Monitoring at Runtime with QEA
The MarQ tool for monitoring properties expressed as Quantified Event Automata is presented, showing that MarQ is one of the most efficient existing monitoring tools for both offline monitoring of trace logs and online monitoring of running systems.