Inferring Geographic Isolation of Wolverines in California Using Historical DNA

@inproceedings{Schwartz2007InferringGI,
  title={Inferring Geographic Isolation of Wolverines in California Using Historical DNA},
  author={Michael K. Schwartz and Keith B. Aubry and Kevin S. McKelvey and Kristine L. Pilgrim and Jeffrey P. Copeland and John R. Squires and Robert M. Inman and Samantha M. Wisely and Leonard F. Ruggiero},
  year={2007}
}
Abstract Delineating a species' geographic range using the spatial distribution of museum specimens or even contemporary detection–non-detection data can be difficult. This is particularly true at the periphery of a species range where species' distributions are often disjunct. Wolverines (Gulo gulo) are wide-ranging mammals with discontinuous and potentially isolated populations at the periphery of their range. One potentially disjunct population occurred in the Sierra Nevada Mountains… 
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References

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TLDR
The connectivity of populations on the edge of their historical distribution to the larger, continuous, northern distribution of wolverines was examined to confirm that high levels of gene flow do occur among all the northern wolverine populations sampled and observe progressively increasing genetic structure at the periphery.
Genetic structure of North American wolverine (Gulo gulo) populations
TLDR
It is suggested that reductions in this species’ range may have led to population fragmentation in the extreme reaches of its southern distribution and the continued reduction of suitable habitat for this species may lead to more populations becoming isolated remnants of a larger distribution of northern wolverines, as documented in other North American carnivore species.
Distribution and Broadscale Habitat Relations of the Wolverine in the Contiguous United States
Abstract Conservation of the wolverine (Gulo gulo) at the southern extent of its North American range requires reliable understandings of past and present distribution patterns and broad-scale
Contrasting levels of genetic differentiation among populations of wolverines (Gulo gulo) from northern Canada revealed by nuclear and mitochondrial loci
TLDR
Mitochondrial data provide evidence that wolverines in Canada are genetically structured due to female philopatry, and highlight the importance of examining both nuclear and mitochondrial loci when attempting to elucidate patterns of genetic structure.
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TLDR
Findings suggest that, although wolverines maintain large home ranges, they exhibit fidelity to discrete areas, gene flow is predominantly male-mediated, and most sites in the Northwest Territories are genetically independent and thus represent populations.
Genetic diversity and population structure of wolverine (Gulo gulo) populations at the southern edge of their current distribution in North America with implications for genetic viability
TLDR
It is suggested that at least 400 breeding pairs or 1–2 effective migrants per generation would be needed to ensure genetic viability in the long-term for each of the populations in the United States.
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TLDR
This study evaluates population genetic structure and gene flow among Montana wolverines using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and provides additional support for the hypothesis that large carnivore populations of Montana are becoming increasingly fragmented due to human development and disturbance.
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TLDR
Conservation plans for these medium-sized carnivores should emphasize maintenance of genetic diversity and recognize that successful dispersal of females between populations may be limited, a finding consistent with male-biased dispersal in wolverines.
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TLDR
It is shown that peripheral populations of lynx have fewer mean numbers of alleles per population and lower expected heterozygosity, which is surprising, given the lynx's capacity to move long distances, but can be explained by the fact that periphery populations often have smaller population sizes, limited opportunities for genetic exchange and may be disproportionately affected by ebbs and flows of species’ geographical range.
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TLDR
Overall genetic variability in Scandinavian wolverine populations was found to be lower than previously reported for other mustelids, with only two to five alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities across the examined populations, being lowest in southern Norway.
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