# Inference of finite automata using homing sequences

@article{Rivest1989InferenceOF, title={Inference of finite automata using homing sequences}, author={Ronald L. Rivest and Robert E. Schapire}, journal={Inf. Comput.}, year={1989}, volume={103}, pages={299-347} }

We present new algorithms for inferring an unknown finite-state automaton from its input/output behavior <italic>in the absence of a means of resetting the machine to a start state</italic>. A key technique used is inference of a <italic>homing sequence</italic> for the unknown automaton.
Our inference procedures experiment with the unknown machine, and from time to time require a teacher to supply counterexamples to incorrect conjectures about the structure of the unknown automaton. In this…

## 380 Citations

### Diversity-based inference of finite automata

- Computer Science28th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (sfcs 1987)
- 1987

A new procedure for inferring the structure of a finitestate automaton (FSA) from its input/output behavior, using access to the automaton to perform experiments, based on the notion of equivalence between testa.

### Regular Inference for State Machines with Parameters

- Computer ScienceFASE
- 2006

The main new idea is to infer, for each state, a partitioning of input symbols into equivalence classes under the hypothesis that all input symbols in an equivalence class have the same effect on the state machine.

### Inferring Automata and its Application to Compositional Verification WPEII : Critical Review Report

- Computer Science
- 2005

Given an oracle which can answer membership and equivalence queries for an unknown regular language, this work presents algorithms for learning the regular set perfectly and describes a modified learning algorithm which can be used to learn context-free grammars from their structural descriptions.

### Inferring Finite State Machines Without Reset Using State Identification Sequences

- Computer Science, MathematicsICTSS
- 2015

This paper addresses the issue of inferring a finite state machine FSM that cannot be reset and proposes a method, inspired by FSM-based testing generation methods, which is the first model inference method that does not require resetting the system, anddoes not require an external oracle to decide on equivalence.

### Eecient Learning of Typical Finite Automata from Random Walks Extended Abstract

- Computer Science
- 1996

This paper presents the rst e cient algorithms for learning non-trivial classes of automata in an entirely passive learning model, and adopts an on-line learning model in which the learner is asked to predict the output of the next state, given the next symbol of the random input sequence.

### Regular Inference for State Machines Using Domains with Equality Tests

- Computer Science, MathematicsFASE
- 2008

This work generalizes regular inference techniques to infer a class of state machines with an infinite state space and considers Mealy machines extended with state variables that can assume values from a potentially unbounded domain, to be the first extension of regular inference to infinite-state systems.

### Inference of Event-Recording Automata Using Timed Decision Trees

- Computer ScienceCONCUR
- 2006

This paper presents an algorithm for inferring a timed-automaton model of a system from information obtained by observing its external behavior, and first constructs a so called timed decision tree from observations of system behavior, which is thereafter folded into an automaton.

### Inferring Automata with State-Local Alphabet Abstractions

- Computer ScienceNASA Formal Methods
- 2013

This paper combines the automated alphabet abstraction approach, which refines the global alphabet of the system to be learned on the fly during the learning process, with the principle of state-local alphabets: rather than determining a single global alphabet, this approach infer the optimal alphabet abstraction individually for each state.

### Active learning for extended finite state machines

- Computer ScienceFormal Aspects of Computing
- 2016

A black-box active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM) by dynamic black- box analysis based on a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries that induces a generalization of the classical Nerode equivalence and canonical automata construction to the symbolic setting.

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 21 REFERENCES

### Diversity-based inference of finite automata

- Computer Science28th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (sfcs 1987)
- 1987

A new procedure for inferring the structure of a finitestate automaton (FSA) from its input/output behavior, using access to the automaton to perform experiments, based on the notion of equivalence between testa.

### Complexity of Automaton Identification from Given Data

- Computer Science, MathematicsInf. Control.
- 1978

### Reductions among prediction problems: on the difficulty of predicting automata

- Computer Science[1988] Proceedings. Structure in Complexity Theory Third Annual Conference
- 1988

A notion of prediction-preserving reducibility is developed, and it is shown that if DFAs are predictable, then so are all languages in logspace and the predictability of all Booleman formulas.

### The minimum consistent DFA problem cannot be approximated within and polynomial

- Computer ScienceSTOC '89
- 1989

It is shown that for any constant k, no polynomial time algorithm can be guaranteed to find a consistent DFA of size optk, where opt is the size of a smallest DFA consistent with the sample.

### Inductive Inference, DFAs, and Computational Complexity

- Computer ScienceAII
- 1989

The results discussed determine the extent to which DFAs can be feasibly inferred, and highlight a number of interesting approaches in computational learning theory.

### Genetic AI: Translating piaget into lisp

- Psychology
- 1986

This article presents a constructivist model of human cognitive development during infancy. According to constructivism, the elements of mental representation-even such basic elements as the concept…