# Inference and Computational Semantics

@article{Blackburn2004InferenceAC, title={Inference and Computational Semantics}, author={Patrick Blackburn and Michael Kohlhase}, journal={Journal of Logic, Language and Information}, year={2004}, volume={13}, pages={117-120} }

In this paper we discuss inference in computational semantics. In particular, we argue that state-of-the-art methods in first-order theorem proving and model generation are of direct relevance to inference for natural language processing. This claim is based on our experience of implementing van der Sandt’s approach to presupposition, and much of the paper discusses this application. Incidentally, the reader can experiment with this implementation over the internet: most of what is discussed…

## 65 Citations

### A Survey of Computational Semantics: Representation, Inference and Knowledge in Wide-Coverage Text Understanding

- Computer ScienceLang. Linguistics Compass
- 2011

Promising future research directions of computational semantics are investigating alternative representation and inference methods (using weaker variants of first-order logic, reasoning with defaults), and developing evaluation methods measuring the semantic adequacy of systems and formalisms.

### Computational Semantics in Discourse: Underspecification, Resolution, and Inference

- Computer ScienceJ. Log. Lang. Inf.
- 2004

It is shown how underspecified semantic representations can be built in a compositional way (for a fragment of English Grammar) using standard techniques borrowed from the λ-calculus, how inferences can becarried out on discourse representations using a translation to first-order logic, and how existing research prototypes (discourseprocessing and spoken-dialogue systems) implement the formalism.

### Abducing Coreference by Model Construction

- Computer Science
- 2007

A semantic representation for utterances containing anaphora that enables us to compute possible antecedents by abductive inference and is applied to the resolution of anaphoric expressions in the general model constructing framework for incremental discourse representation.

### Computing Meaning : Annotation, Representation, and Inference

- Biology
- 2014

This chapter introduces the subsequent chapters in the book and how they are related, against the background of a discussion of the nature and the complexity of processes that compute the meanings of…

### As brief as possible (but no briefer)

- Philosophy
- 2008

For years researchers struggle to explain an impossible muddle of data, and then BAM! some genius comes and publishes an article in Theoretical Linguistics that turns everything on its head. In this…

### From TY_n to DRT: an implementation

- Computer Science
- 2007

The significance for computational linguistics of Reinhard Muskens' theoretical work is assessed by implementing the TY_n-based approach to DRT in \nessie, a generic framework for semantic construction that is implemented in the functional programming language OCaml.

### Plural semantics for natural language understanding — a computational proof-theoretic approach

- Computer Science
- 2005

This thesis investigates problems of representing, disambiguating and reasoning with plurals from a computational perspective, defines a computationally suitable representation for important plural constructions, proposes a tractable resolution algorithm for semantic plural ambiguities, and integrates an automatic reasoning component for plurals.

### Natural language directed inference from ontologies

- Computer Science, PhilosophyArtif. Intell.
- 2008

### Towards Wide-Coverage Semantic Interpretation

- Computer Science
- 2005

Further developments in this work are discussed, generating semantic representations for sentences or small texts, showing how to calculate background knowledge required for reasoning, and performing inferences using state-of-the-art theorem provers and model builders.

### Towards a large-scale formal semantic lexicon for text processing !

- Computer Science
- 2009

It is argued that the method of continuation is the best approach to deal with event modifiers in a compositional DRT framework, reaching high coverage of which practical text processing systems can benifit.

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 30 REFERENCES

### Representation and Inference for Natural Language: A First Course in Computational Semantics

- Computer ScienceComputational Linguistics
- 2006

This book introduces fundamental techniques for computing semantic representations for fragments of natural language and performing inference with the result by using first-order logic and lambda calculus.

### A Resolution Calculus for Dynamic Semantics

- LinguisticsJELIA
- 1998

The aim is to circumvent the computational complexity triggered by natural language ambiguities like pronoun binding, by interleaving pronoun binding with resolution deduction, by using resolution theorem proving to natural language semantics.

### Dynamic interpretation and hoare deduction

- Computer ScienceJ. Log. Lang. Inf.
- 1992

A dynamic assignment language which extends the dynamic predicate logic of Groenendijk and Stokhof with ι assignment and with generalized quantifiers is presented and it is shown that the calculus gives a straightforward method for finding static meanings of the programs of the representation language.

### Combining Montague Semantics and Discourse Representation

- Linguistics
- 1996

Kamp’s Discourse Representation Theory (DRT, see Kamp [1981], Heim [1982, 1983], Kamp & Reyle [1993]) offers an attractive means of modeling the semantics of discourse. The theory works very well for…

### A Deduction Method Complete for Refutation and Finite Satisfiability

- MathematicsJELIA
- 1998

A novel deduction method is introduced for database and Artificial Intelligence applications that processes existential quantifiers in a special manner which makes it complete not only for refutation, but also for finite satisfiability.

### Presupposition Projection as Anaphora Resolution

- PhilosophyJ. Semant.
- 1992

It is argued that presuppositional expressions should not be seen as referring expressions, nor is presupposition to be explicated in terms of some non-standard logic, while the theory is elaborated in the framework of discourse representation theory.

### Model generation for discourse representation theory

- Mathematics
- 2000

We present a tableaux-based model generation calculus for DRT, which gives us an incremental approach to discourse processing in the presence of world knowledge. We show the usefulness of such as…

### Natural language understanding

- Computer ScienceBejnamin/Cummings series in computer science
- 1987

The text features a new chapter on statistically-based methods using large corpora and an appendix on speech recognition and spoken language understanding and information on semantics that was covered in the first edition has been largely expanded in this edition.

### A Resolution Decision Procedure for the Guarded Fragment

- PhilosophyCADE
- 1998

By constructing an effective decision procedure for the guarded fragment of [ANB96], this work defines an effective procedure for deciding these modal logics.

### Automated deduction : a basis for applications

- Computer Science
- 1998

A comparison of Equality Reasoning Heuristics and Equational Reasoning in Saturation-Based Theorem Proving with Automated Deduction in Software Engineering and hardware Design.