Infectivity of Post-Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Patients to Sand Flies: Revisiting a Proof of Concept in the Context of the Kala-azar Elimination Program in the Indian Subcontinent

@article{Molina2017InfectivityOP,
  title={Infectivity of Post-Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Patients to Sand Flies: Revisiting a Proof of Concept in the Context of the Kala-azar Elimination Program in the Indian Subcontinent},
  author={Ricardo Molina and Debashis Ghosh and Eugenia Carrillo and S{\'e}verine Monnerat and Caryn Bern and Dinesh Mondal and Jorge Alvar},
  journal={Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America},
  year={2017},
  volume={65},
  pages={150 - 153}
}
  • R. Molina, D. Ghosh, J. Alvar
  • Published 18 May 2017
  • Medicine
  • Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Abstract We compared xenodiagnosis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction in skin biopsies from 3 patients with maculopapular or nodular post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). All patients infected sand flies. Parasite loads in skin varied from 1428 to 63 058 parasites per microgram. PKDL detection and treatment are important missing components of the kala-azar elimination program. 
Quantifying the Infectiousness of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Toward Sand Flies
  • D. Mondal, C. Bern, J. Alvar
  • Medicine
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2018
TLDR
Skin parasite load was strongly associated with positive xenodiagnosis and nodular PKDL was more likely (86%) and macular PK DL less likely (35%) to result in positive xenDiagnosis.
Atypical presentation of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.
Monitoring of Parasite Kinetics in Indian Post–Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis
  • S. Moulik, S. Chaudhuri, M. Chatterjee
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2018
TLDR
It is established that quantifying parasite load is an effective approach for monitoring patients with PKDL, wherein miltefosine demonstrated near-total parasite clearance and resolution of symptoms, however, in cases treated with LAmB, the persistence of parasites suggested treatment inadequacy.
Impact of sequelae of visceral leishmaniasis and their contribution to ongoing transmission of Leishmania donovani
TLDR
This review outlines the evolving appreciation of PKDL as an impactful disease in its own right and discusses the various diagnostic methods that can be applied for the detection and characterization of PK DL cases.
Visceral leishmaniasis: An immunological viewpoint on asymptomatic infections and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis
TLDR
The potential of host immune inhibitory mechanisms to identify immune correlates of protective immunity to understand the mystery of asymptomatic infections, sterile cure and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis remains a major threat in its elimination.
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent: A threat to the South-East Asia Region Kala-azar Elimination Programme.
TLDR
The literature with regard to Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in Asia is reviewed and the findings are interpreted in relation to current intervention methods in the KAEP in order to make recommendations.
Molecular Tracking of the Leishmania Parasite
With the Visceral Leishmaniasis/Kala-azar Elimination Program in South Asia in its consolidation phase, the focus is mainly on case detection, vector control, and identifying potential sources of
Active surveillance identified a neglected burden of macular cases of Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in West Bengal
TLDR
Investigation of a higher proportion of macular cases indicates that this variant is not an uncommon presentation as conventionally stated in text books, and should be studied in greater detail to ensure success of the ongoing Leishmaniasis elimination programme.
Evaluation of molecular assays to detect Leishmania donovani in Phlebotomus argentipes fed on post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis patients
TLDR
Considering the sensitivity, cost, detection time, and field applicability, RPA assay can be considered as a promising single molecular detection tool for investigations pertaining to LD infections in sand flies and/or host infectiousness in PKDL, while it can also be useful in confirmation of microscopy negative sand fly samples.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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