Infectious diseases of Antarctic penguins: current status and future threats

  title={Infectious diseases of Antarctic penguins: current status and future threats},
  author={Wray W. Grimaldi and Phil J. Seddon and Phil O’B. Lyver and Shinichi Nakagawa and Daniel M. Tompkins},
  journal={Polar Biology},
Until roughly 200 years ago, the Antarctic was untouched by humankind. With ratification of the Antarctic Treaty in 1961, this region was set aside forever for peaceful purposes and as a science preserve. However, Antarctic national programs and tourism activities are growing, increasing the risks of introduction of infectious diseases into wildlife within the Antarctic Treaty area. The immunological naïveté of Antarctic species makes them vulnerable to pathogen’s commonplace in other parts of… CONTINUE READING
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