Infectious Causation of Disease: An Evolutionary Perspective

@article{Cochran2000InfectiousCO,
  title={Infectious Causation of Disease: An Evolutionary Perspective},
  author={Gregory M. Cochran and Paul W. Ewald and Kyle D. Cochran},
  journal={Perspectives in Biology and Medicine},
  year={2000},
  volume={43},
  pages={406 - 448}
}
Over the past two centuries, diseases have been separated into three categories: infectious diseases, genetic diseases, and diseases caused by too much or too little of some noninfectious environmental constituent. At the end of the 19th century, the most rapid development was in the first of these categories; within three decades after the first cause-effect linkage of a bacterium to a disease, most of the bacterial causes of common acute infectious diseases had been identified. This rapid… 

Tables from this paper

Evolution of virulence
  • P. Ewald
  • Medicine
    Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
  • 2004
Genes, Germs, and Schizophrenia: An Evolutionary Perspective
TLDR
This article evaluates the evidence that has been used to support genetic and infectious causation of schizophrenia and focuses on the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii but also assesses other pathogens that may contribute to the development of some of the illnesses currently categorized as schizophrenia.
Disrupted human–pathogen co-evolution: a model for disease
TLDR
It is suggested that disrupted co-evolution between a pathogen and its human host can explain variation in disease outcomes, and that genome-by-genome interactions should therefore be incorporated into genetic models of disease caused by infectious agents.
Updating the epidemiological transition model
  • A. Mercer
  • Medicine
    Epidemiology and Infection
  • 2018
TLDR
Modifications made to Omran's original model and stages of transition are outlined, and it is suggested that without a focus on aetiology and morbidity, these have been basically descriptive rather than explanatory, and potentially misleading because infections have been confirmed as causes of various chronic diseases.
99th Dahlem Conference on Infection, Inflammation and Chronic Inflammatory Disorders: Symbionts and immunopathology in chronic diseases: insights from evolution
  • P. Ewald
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical and experimental immunology
  • 2010
TLDR
Assessment of the progress in understanding oncogenesis and other chronic diseases emphasizes the value of integrated assessments of three categories of causation, which need to considered for every disease that involves immunopathology.
Rethinking the Origin of Chronic Diseases
TLDR
It is proposed that the pathogenesis of some chronic diseases is linked to ancestral infections or exposure to noxious agents, and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) could be a recollection of the authors' ancestors' long-term affliction with viral hepatitis.
Evolution of virulence
  • P. Ewald
  • Medicine
    Infectious disease clinics of North America
  • 2004
An evolutionary perspective on parasitism as a cause of cancer.
  • P. Ewald
  • Biology
    Advances in parasitology
  • 2009
Introduction: The changing microbial environment, Darwinian medicine and the hygiene hypothesis
TLDR
This approach enables one to identify some of the organisms that are important for the ‘hygiene’ or ‘old friends’ hypothesis, and to point to their potential exploitation in novel prophylactics and treatments, with applications in several branches of medicine.
Are Fungal Pathogens Manipulating Human Behavior?
  • P. Frost
  • Biology
    Perspectives in biology and medicine
  • 2020
TLDR
Certain neurodegenerative diseases may be the terminal stage of a longer-lasting relationship in which the host helps the pathogen infect other hosts, largely via sexual relations.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 177 REFERENCES
Infectious agents and the etiology of chronic idiopathic diseases.
TLDR
It is argued that many of these diseases have clinical, epidemiological, and pathological features that suggest a role for microbes in their pathogenesis, and although definitive evidence of microbial disease causation is lacking, it is believed that new technologies, such as sequence-based microbial identification, will successfully be applied to many ofThese chronic idiopathic diseases in the near future.
Infectious causes of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer.
  • G. Cassell
  • Medicine
    Emerging infectious diseases
  • 1998
TLDR
A number of infectious agents that cause or contribute to neoplastic diseases in humans have been documented in the past 6 years, indicating that a number of chronic diseases of unknown etiology are caused by one or more infectious agents.
Sequence-based identification of microbial pathogens: a reconsideration of Koch's postulates
TLDR
A set of molecular guidelines for establishing disease causation with sequence-based technology is proposed, and the importance of the scientific concordance of evidence in supporting causal associations is emphasized.
Are All Diseases Infectious?
  • B. Lorber
  • Medicine
    Annals of Internal Medicine
  • 1996
TLDR
Although the media has been flooded with interesting and sometimes dramatic reports of emerging infectious diseases and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, the media have largely ignored a quieter revolution that has been taking place in the understanding of human-microorganism interactions: the discovery that transmissible agents are responsible for diseases that were never suspected of being infectious in origin.
Assigning Causation in Disease: Beyond Koch's Postulates
  • M. Sutter
  • Philosophy
    Perspectives in biology and medicine
  • 1996
TLDR
The intent of this essay is to look at causality in disease: to explore some of the history and some problems involved; to suggest possible approaches to their solution; and to discuss why it is important to try to assign causality.
Infections and atherosclerosis: new clues from an old hypothesis?
  • F. Nieto
  • Biology
    American journal of epidemiology
  • 1998
TLDR
The synthesis of past and current evidence reviewed here suggests the following hypotheses and clues for future studies: that the study of a possible atherogenic role of infections should be extended to infectious agents other than the three that have been the focus of research in recent years.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), KS-associated herpesvirus, and the criteria for causality in the age of molecular biology.
TLDR
This special issue celebrating the 75th anniversary of the Columbia University School of Public Health will discuss some of the unique problems and opportunities of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), which was identified in the laboratory at Columbia.
Population biology of infectious diseases : report of the Dahlem Workshop on Population Biology of Infectious Disease Agents, Berlin 1982, March 14-19
TLDR
Co-evolution Between Hosts and Infectious Disease Agents and its Effects on Virulence and Pathogens As Causes of Genetic Diversity in their Host Populations are studied.
Typhoid fever.
  • A. B. CiusnE
  • Medicine
    The Journal of the Arkansas Medical Society
  • 1967
TLDR
This Review will focus on recent developments in the understanding of Typhoid fever, a disease caused by Salmonella enterica serovar typhi which is one of the most common causes of bowel perforation in the developing world.
Cancer and infection: estimates of the attributable fraction in 1990.
  • P. Pisani, D. Parkin, N. Muñoz, J. Ferlay
  • Medicine
    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • 1997
TLDR
It is estimated that 15.6% of the worldwide incidence of cancer in 1990 can be attributed to infection with either the hepatitis B and C viruses, the human papillomaviruses, EBV, human T-cell lymphotrophic virus I, HIV, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, schistosomes, or liver flukes.
...
...