Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes are a group of autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by reduction of the amount of mitochondrial DNA in the affected tissue (muscle, liver, brain, or kidneys). We report a case of an infant with myopathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, nephrocalcinosis, proximal renal tubulopathy, moderate lactic acidosis, and a novel mutation of the RRM2B gene. Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes are a group of autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by reduction of the mitochondrial DNA amount in the affected tissue (1). Depletion of mitochondrial DNA can affect specific tissues or combination of organs and tissues including muscles, liver, brain, or kidneys (2,3). Different defects of nuclear genes may lead to different clinical manifestations, such as hepatocerebral syndrome, encephalopathy, or myopathy. One of the recently identified genes for mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes is RRM2B, which encodes an isoform of a small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. This enzyme plays an essential role in nucleotide synthesis, converting ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. Since 2008, 14 mutations of RRM2B gene have been reported (3,4). All the reported mutations are unique and there is no mutation that appears in more than one family (1-4). All reported patients had myopathy and primary lactic acidosis. More than a half of them died before the fourth month of age. The oldest patient with RRM2B mutation was a 42 years old woman with clinical findings suggestive of neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (5). In this report, we review a case of an infant with muscular hypotonia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, deafness, nephrocalcinosis, CASE REPORT 580 Croat Med J. 2013;54:579-84 www.cmj.hr proximal renal tubulopathy, moderate lactic acidosis, and a novel mutation of the RRM2B gene.