Infant Crying, Colic, and Gastrointestinal Discomfort in Early Childhood: A Review of the Evidence and Most Plausible Mechanisms

  title={Infant Crying, Colic, and Gastrointestinal Discomfort in Early Childhood: A Review of the Evidence and Most Plausible Mechanisms},
  author={Raanan Shamir and Ian St. James-Roberts and Carlo Di Lorenzo and Alan J. Burns and Nikhil Thapar and Flavia Indrio and Giuseppe Riezzo and Francesco Maria Raimondi and Antonio Di Mauro and Ruggiero Francavilla and R. Ha-Vinh Leuchter and Alexandra Darqu{\'e} and Petra Susan H{\"u}ppi and Ralf G Heine and Marc Bella{\"i}che and Michael Levy and Camille Jung and Marissa Alvarez and Kimberly Hovish},
  journal={Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition},
y the time their child is 4 months old, up to 20% of parentshave reported colicky symptoms in their infants. Is infantcolic a disorder? Is it related to the intestine, as the term colicimplies? Is any treatment other than reassurance of families regard-ing the transient nature of these symptoms indicated? In short, arewe stepping in an evidence-based arena or are we dealing with ‘‘gutfeelings’’?This supplement on infant crying, colic, and gastrointestinal(GI) disturbances in early childhood… Expand
Recent advances in understanding and managing infantile colic
The aetiology of infantile colic remains unknown, although an unbalanced gastro-intestinal microbiome, increased intestinal permeability, and chronic inflammation are involved, as well as behavioural factors, including over- and under-stimulation. Expand
Infant colic: mechanisms and management
The definitional entanglement with the Rome IV criteria is delineated as the leading, most recent diagnostic criteria for infant colic, and the evidence for gastrointestinal, psychosocial, microbial and neurogenic factors in the pathogenesis of the condition is explored. Expand
Infantile colic, regurgitation, and constipation: an early traumatic insult in the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children?
According to data, children with a history of gastrointestinal infantile distress have a higher prevalence of FGIDs years later, compared to healthy children. Expand
Infantile Colic, Is There an Association With The Source Of Early Infant Nutrition?
It is suggested that inadequate amounts of lactobacillus and increased amounts of coliform bacteria like E coli, Klebsiellosis and anaerobes in the intestine may influence gut motor function and gas production which subsequently contributes to the occurrence of colic. Expand
Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infancy: Impact on the Health of the Infant and Family
Primary management of the FGIDs should be focused on improving the infants' symptoms and quality of life of the family, and available evidence recommends nutritional advice as it is an effective strategy and most of the time devoid of adverse effects. Expand
Excessive crying in infants.
Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. Expand
Costs associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders and related signs and symptoms in infants: a systematic review protocol
This is a systematic review of published studies that will be submitted for publication to a peer-reviewed journal and how the totals for cost differ across countries and elements that contribute to the differences will be generated. Expand
The excessively crying infant: etiology and treatment.
Treatment in infants who cry excessively consists not of "curing the colic," although usually it is possible to reduce crying, but of helping the parents to get through this challenging period in their baby's development. Expand
The New Rome IV Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infants and Toddlers
Underlying mechanisms of pain in infants and toddlers, including the neuro-development of nociceptive and pain pathways, the various factors that are involved in pain experience, and methods of pain assessment is essential for the clinician who encounters functional pain in this age group. Expand
Infant colic and breastfeeding – is there a connection?
The task of the paediatrician is to provide competent counselling for the anxious parents of an infant with colic using evidence-based medicine (EBM) databases, which will help preserve the mother’s breastfeeding. Expand