Assuming a general timelike congruence of worldlines as a reference frame, we derive a covariant general formalism of inertial forces in General Relativity. Inspired by the works of Abramowicz et. al. (see e.g. Abramowicz and Lasota 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. 14 A23-30), we also study conformal rescalings of spacetime and investigate how these affect the… (More)