Industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics

@article{Elander2003IndustrialPO,
  title={Industrial production of $\beta$-lactam antibiotics},
  author={Richard Paul Elander},
  journal={Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology},
  year={2003},
  volume={61},
  pages={385-392}
}
  • R. Elander
  • Published 3 April 2003
  • Biology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
The industrial production of β-lactam antibiotics by fermentation over the past 50 years is one of the outstanding examples of biotechnology. Today, the β-lactam antibiotics, particularly penicillins and cephalosporins, represent the world's major biotechnology products with worldwide dosage form sales of ~US$ 15 billion or ~65% of the total world market for antibiotics. Over the past five decades, major improvements in the productivity of the producer organisms, Penicillium chrysogenum and… 
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Biosynthesis of β-lactam nuclei in yeast.
Studies on the biosynthetic pathways of clavulanic acid and cephamycin C in Streptomyces clavuligerus
TLDR
Structures of CAD in complex with the NADPH co-factor, and clavulanic acid, are described here, leading to a proposed reaction mechanism, and an increased understanding of how the enzyme is able to catalyse a reaction involving such a labile intermediate.
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