Industrial and non‐industrial melanism in the peppered moth, Bistort betularia (L.)

@article{Steward1977IndustrialAN,
  title={Industrial and non‐industrial melanism in the peppered moth, Bistort betularia (L.)},
  author={R. C. Steward},
  journal={Ecological Entomology},
  year={1977},
  volume={2}
}
Abstract. 1. Estimates of the relative crypsis of the melanic and typical morphs of B.betularia have been made at fifty‐two sites in southern England and south Wales and these estimates were compared with melanic frequencies in samples from these sites. 
Industrial melanism in Mesopsocus unipunctatus (Müll.) (Psocoptera) in northern England
Abstract. 1. The light and melanic morphs of M.unipunctatus are described, their genetic inheritance considered, and their geographic distribution over a pollution gradient in Yorkshire is examined.
Industrial melanism and peppered moths (Biston betularia (L.))
The spread of melanic forms of the peppered moth (Biston betularia (L.)) over polluted areas of Britain from the mid-nineteenth century onwards, has become widely known and quoted as a classicalExpand
The inheritance and maintenance of the melanic form nigrescens of Pachycnemia hippocastanaria (Lepidoptera: Ennominae)
Abstract. 1. A New Forest population of P.hippocastanaria with both typical and nigrescens forms was studied over 6 years. The nigrescens form constituted between 10% and 17% of the population.
Pre‐adult viability differences of melanic Biston betularia (L.) (Lepidoptera)
TLDR
Departures from mendelian ratios have been analysed in all published family data for the peppered moth, Biston betularia and carbonaria homozygotes have enhanced viability while the viability of insularia/carbonaria heterozygotes is reduced. Expand
Melanic polymorphism in the peppered moth, Biston betularia, and other Lepidoptera
TLDR
The story of industrial melanism is reviewed with specific reference to the most famous example, the peppered moth, concentrating on the influence of ecological and behavioural factors on the evolution of melanic polymorphism. Expand
Evolution in reverse: clean air and the peppered moth
TLDR
The Clean Air Acts and the consequent decline in air pollution levels are probably responsible but there are many ill–understood problems, not the least being how, and the extent to which, non-visual selection operates. Expand
Fitness of insularia morphs of the peppered moth Biston betularia
TLDR
Differences in dynamics of frequency change in insularia and carbonaria are evidence against induction, which has sometimes been invoked to explain the spread of melanism in this species. Expand
The understanding of industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
TLDR
It is suggested that visual selective coefficients based on a true assessment of the resting behaviour of the moths may considerably improve the fit between computer predictions and observed phenotype frequency distributions. Expand
The Rise and Fall of the Carbonaria Form of the Peppered Moth
  • L. Cook
  • Geography, Medicine
  • The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 2003
TLDR
A system under strong selection that has always been in a dynamic state without equilibria is indicated, and experiments to investigate predation by birds show a net advantage to carbonaria morphs in regions where typical frequencies were low at the time of the experiment, and a disadvantage where Typical frequencies were high. Expand
Melanic frequencies in three species of moths in post industrial Britain
TLDR
Changing patterns of morph frequency in three moth species have been investigated using data from the Rothamsted Insect Survey and it is shown that B. betularia is rarer than the other species and all three species are at lower densities in industrial than in non-industrial regions. Expand
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References

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Genetic Control of the Melanic Form Insularia of the Peppered Moth Biston betularia (L.)
IN Britain the melanic form insularia of the moth Biston betularia (L.) is extremely variable and the name has been used to describe individuals almost indistinguishable from the typical pale form asExpand
Atmospheric pollution and industrial melanism
TLDR
The distribution of melanic forms in two moth and two ladybird species has been analysed in relation to fourteen environmental variables by multiple regression and there is no evidence for industrial melanism in Adalia decempunctata. Expand
Further selection experiments on industrial melanism in the Lepidoptera
TLDR
The results of extensive mark-release-recapture experiments undertaken in 1953 on the Peppered Moth, Biston betularia Linn, and its two melanic forms may be summarised as follows. Expand
Variation in some moths from the industrial north‐west of England
A survey of five species of moth each showing different degrees of melanism was made in Greater Manchester and compared with samples from adjacent rural areas. The genetics of the various systems isExpand
Genetic Control of the Melanic Form insularia of the Moth Biston betularia (L.)
TLDR
The extreme variability of the form insularia is extremely variable and has a distribution which would repay more intensive study, but some recent breeding results suggest that on occasion the form may be controlled by a third allelomorph at the carbonaria locus. Expand
Melanism in the moth Gonodontis bidentata: A cline within the Merseyside conurbation
TLDR
The spread of melanic forms through populations of the moth Biston betularia was discussed, with evidence that larvae with the gene may be hardier than those without it, and the Merseyside populations were examined. Expand
A survey of the frequencies of Biston betularia (L.) (Lep.) and its melanic forms in Great Britain
A survey of the frequencies of Biston betularia (L.) (Lep.) and its melanic forms in Great Britain
Recognition of Appropriate Backgrounds by the Pale and Black Phases of Lepidoptera
TLDR
It is shown that in the Manchester district between the years 1848 and 1898, the jet-black form of the peppered moth had an approximate 30 per cent advantage over pale lichen-like individuals, which were the only ones known there until the middle of the last century. Expand
A local survey of the distribution of industrial melanic forms in the moth Biston betularia and estimates of the selective values of these in an industrial environment
  • C. Clarke, P. Sheppard
  • Geography
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences
  • 1966
The survey shows that there is a rapid decline in the frequency of the industrial melanic carbonaria of the moth Biston betularia from a value of about 97 % in Liverpool to less than 10 % 50 miles toExpand
Selection experiments on industrial melanism in the Lepidoptera
TLDR
The industrial melanism of the Lepidoptera is the most striking evolutionary change ever actually witnessed in any organ. Expand
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