Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-13 gene expression by TNF-alpha is mediated by MAP kinases, AP-1, and NF-kappaB transcription factors in articular chondrocytes.


Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a major proinflammatory cytokine, induces arthritic joint inflammation and resorption of cartilage by matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). RNA for MMP-13 is increased in human arthritic femoral cartilage. Mechanisms of this induction were investigated by pretreating primary human osteoarthritic (OA) femoral head… (More)