Assessment of Giant Duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L. Schleiden) Turions as Model Objects in Ecotoxicological Applications.
Fronds of the duckweed Lemna minor L. clone St form colonies of different sizes on the basis of stipes connecting mother and daughter fronds for some time after the development of daughter fronds. All the metals (AsO(4)(3-), AsO(2)(-), Cd(2+), CrO(4)(2-), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Hg(2+), Tl(+) and Zn(2+)) and one non-metal (SeO(4)(2-), SeO(3)(2-)) tested here induced frond abscission, thus decreasing the colony size on the basis of a novel mechanism of abscission described recently. Concentration-response curves were created based on percentages of frond abscission after 7 and 24h of toxic compound application, and response concentrations were calculated accordingly. The following conclusions could be drawn: (1) in most cases the response demonstrates less sensitivity than the bio test based on the ISO protocol 20079. (2) Even applying 1mM of the metals, AsO(4)(3-), CrO(4)(2-), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) did not reach the half-maximal effects. (3) The concentration-response curves are bell-shaped with AsO(2-), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), SeO(3)(2-) and Tl(+), which demonstrates that abscission is induced by lower but not by higher concentrations. (4) Frond abscission shows fast and sensitive effects (24h) for Ag(+), Cu(2+), AsO(2-), SeO(4)(2-), SeO(3)(2-) and Tl(+). The mechanisms and responses described here quantitatively for the first time complement and explain observations within the frame of the ISO protocol. Therefore, frond abscission should be regularly reported in the standard test protocols as abscission always indicates massive physiological effects.