Induction of cytokine synthesis and fever suppresses REM sleep and improves mood in patients with major depression

  title={Induction of cytokine synthesis and fever suppresses REM sleep and improves mood in patients with major depression},
  author={Joachim Bauer and Fritz Hohagen and Evi Gimmel and Friederike Bruns and Stephanie Lis and Stephan Krieger and Wolfgang Ambach and Angela Guthmann and Heinz Grunze and Rosemarie Fritsch-Montero and Alexandra Weissbach and Ursula Ganter and Ulrich Frommberger and Dieter Riemann and Mathias Berger},
  journal={Biological Psychiatry},

Experimental Immunomodulation, Sleep, and Sleepiness in Humans

Preliminary evidence from human studies suggesting that inflammatory cytokines such as TNF‐α not only mediate altered sleep‐wake behavior during infections, but in addition are involved in physiological sleep regulation and in hypnotic effects of established sedating drugs.

Cytokine-associated emotional and cognitive disturbances in humans.

In humans, a mild stimulation of the primary host defense has negative effects on emotional and memory functions, which is probably caused by cytokine release, and cytokines represent a novel target for neuropsychopharmacological research.

Cytokines, stress, and depression. Conclusions and perspectives.

From the data that are reviewed in this volume, several important points emerge: cytokines administered to patients and laboratory animals induce symptoms of depression, and antidepressants have anti-inflammatory properties and attenuate the behavioral effects of immune challenge.

Cytokines, "depression due to a general medical condition," and antidepressant drugs.

It is argued that immune activation is involved in the etiology and symptomatology of depression associated with various medical conditions.

REVIEW ARTICLE: Sleep and cytokine–immune functions in medical, psychiatric and primary sleep disorders

Sleep disturbances accompany the fatigue and malaise in such chronic autoimmune diseases as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosis and multiple sclerosis and may have implications for changes in sleep and increased IL-6 and TNF-α in the blood of patients with narcolepsy.

Dose-dependent effects of endotoxin on human sleep.

Whereas it is well established that the endocrine and thermoregulatory systems are very sensitive to endotoxin, this study shows that human sleep-wake behavior is even more sensitive to activation of host defense mechanisms.

Brain-immune interactions in sleep.

Cytokines and serotonin transporter in patients with major depression




Cytokine production during sleep and wakefulness and its relationship to cortisol in healthy humans.

The results show the capability of cultured blood cells to produce cytokines upon endotoxin challenge to be at a maximum around the time of sleep onset and during the first hours of sleep, declining during the night to a minimum level in the morning hours.

Cytokines and sleep.

Recombinant tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 enhance slow-wave sleep.

TNF, in addition to IL 1 and IFN, is an endogenous somnogen, and the fact that TNF and IL 1 as well as other immunoactive substances, e.g.,IFN, muramyl peptides, and endotoxin, enhance SWS suggests that SWS is linked to the immune response.

Functions and mechanisms of interleukin 1 in the brain.

  • N. Rothwell
  • Biology, Psychology
    Trends in pharmacological sciences
  • 1991

Fever: Role of Pyrogens and Cryogens

Before any cytokine or hormone can be characterized as an EP or EC (or, for that matter, as being involved in any of the acute phase responses), clearly established rules must be followed, which are patterned after the traditional criteria used by Koch to distinguish a pathogenic microorganism from a benign one.

REM sleep reduction effects on depression syndromes.

It is suggested that substantial REM sleep reduction has antidepressant activity, and since imipramine and other drug antidepressants reduceREM sleep much more so than nonantidepressant drugs, that an antidepressant "mechanism" of drugs resides in their capacity to substantially reduce REM sleep.

Bacterial products, cytokines and sleep.

The results emphasize the close connection of the infection process, fever and sleep and suggest that muramyl peptides and/or IL-1 may also be involved in daily regulation of sleep.