Serum stimulation of arterial smooth muscle cells in culture induces a progression through the cell cycle and cell proliferation. Most genes previously described as cell cycle-dependent in various cell types also demonstrate a cell cycle-dependent expression in arterial smooth muscle cells. As in other cell types, these genes can be classified into three groups according to their mode of expression: "immediate early" genes (c-fos, c-myc, ...), "delayed early" genes (2F1, ...), and "late-G1" genes (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, thymidine kinase, . . .). In addition to these previously described genes, three genes isolated from a cDNA library of stimulated smooth muscle cells have been demonstrated to be cell cycle-dependent: A21, the rat JE gene, and L51 can be classified as "immediate early" genes, while M11 represents a new member of the "delayed early" gene family.