Cisplatin ototoxicity and protection: clinical and experimental studies.
Previously we reported that ischemia results in apoptosis and is accompanied by phosphorylation on Tyr-701 and increased expression and transcriptional activity of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1). In the present study, we show that exposure of cardiomyocytes to ischemia induced the phosphorylation of STAT-1 at another site, Ser-727. Moreover, STAT-1 is critical for the induction of Fas receptor and Fas ligand expression by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Transcriptional activation of Fas and FasL was dependent on Ser-727 of STAT-1 but was independent of Tyr-701. Similarly, Ser-727 but not Tyr-701 was required for enhancement of cardiomyocyte cell death by STAT-1 during I/R. In addition, inhibition of the p38 pathway prevented the induction and transcriptional activation of Fas and FasL in cardiac cells exposed to I/R, whereas inhibition of p42/p44 MAPK had no effect. Finally, I/R also induced phosphorylation of STAT-1 on Ser-727 and expression of Fas/FasL in ventricular myocytes in the intact heart ex vivo. These results indicate that Fas/FasL genes and apoptosis are activated by STAT-1 in cardiac myocytes exposed to I/R and these effects are dependent on the Ser-727 but not the Tyr-701 phosphorylation sites of STAT-1.