Induction of an illusory shadow person

  title={Induction of an illusory shadow person},
  author={Shahar Arzy and Margitta Seeck and Stephanie Ortigue and Laurent Spinelli and Olaf Blanke},
Stimulation of a site on the brain's left hemisphere prompts the creepy feeling that somebody is close by.The strange sensation that somebody is nearby when no one is actually present has been described by psychiatric and neurological patients, as well as by healthy subjects, but it is not understood how the illusion is triggered by the brain. Here we describe the repeated induction of this sensation in a patient who was undergoing presurgical evaluation for epilepsy treatment, as a result of… 
Case report: A prototypical spontaneous ‘sensed presence’ of a sentient being and concomitant electroencephalographic activity in the clinical laboratory
This case illustrates that many sensed presences might be similar to ‘epileptic auras’ for patients who also display elevated complex partial epileptic-like experiences following closed head injuries and that close attention to typically ignored electroencephalographic ‘transients’ may be helpful indicators.
Neurological and Robot-Controlled Induction of an Apparition
Brain mechanisms involved in processing unreal perceptions
Electrical Stimulation of the Human Brain: Perceptual and Behavioral Phenomena Reported in the Old and New Literature
This comprehensive review contains a detailed summary of the data obtained from electrical brain stimulation in humans in the last 100 years, suggesting that the modulation of activity within a localized, but distributed, neuroanatomical network might explain the perceptual and behavioral phenomena that are reported during focal electrical stimulation of the human brain.
Clinical neuroimaging in epileptic patients with autoscopic hallucinations and out-of-body experiences
Summary Autoscopic phenomena are complex illusory perceptions of one's body during which human subjects experience a second own body or double in their environment. Autoscopic phenomena most commonly
Illusory shadow person causing paradoxical gaze deviations during temporal lobe seizures
Paradigms in paradoxical non-versive gaze deviations in temporal lobe seizures may be due to illusory experiences masked by postictal amnesia.
Bodily self-consciousness and its disorders.
Feeling in control of your footsteps: Conscious gait monitoring and the auditory consequences of footsteps
It is shown that the control of full-body locomotion and the building of a conscious experience of it are at least partially distinct brain processes.


Out-of-body experience and autoscopy of neurological origin.
It is argued that both disintegrations (personal; personal-extrapersonal) are necessary for the occurrence of OBE and AS, and that they are due to a paroxysmal cerebral dysfunction of the TPJ in a state of partially and briefly impaired consciousness.
Neural correlates of action attribution in schizophrenia
Hearing of a Presence
A patient with epilepsy suffering from the paroxysmal unilateral experience of hearing a person in her near extrapersonal space is described and it is suggested that the parxysmal hearing of a person nearby corresponds to an auditory disorder of somatognosia.
Simple and complex vestibular responses induced by electrical cortical stimulation of the parietal cortex in humans
A patient undergoing invasive monitoring for intractable epilepsy who experienced different vestibular sensations after electrical cortical stimulation of the inferior parietal lobule at the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus is reported on.
Effect of subjective perspective taking during simulation of action: a PET investigation of agency
It is suggested that the right inferior parietal, precuneus and somatosensory cortex are specifically involved in distinguishing self-produced actions from those generated by others.
Abnormalities in the awareness of action
Anwesenheit: Psychopathology and Clinical Associations
Summary A feeling of ‘presence’ is a common but relatively neglected phenomenon. The psychopathology, definition and six clinical associations are discussed. Two case histories are presented to
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