Induction and duration of tonic immobility in the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris

  title={Induction and duration of tonic immobility in the lemon shark, Negaprion brevirostris},
  author={Mitchell A. Watsky and Samuel H. Gruber},
  journal={Fish Physiology and Biochemistry},
Tonic immobility (TI) is an unlearned behavioral response characterized by a state of immobility and torpor. Effect of inter-trial interval on duration of tonic immobility was assessed in thirty, juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris). Regression analyses showed that massed trials of 12 per session increased the average duration of tonic immobility by 475 sec compared to spaced trials of 1 per session. Each experiment was composed of 24 trials. TI is stable and durations much longer in… 

Tonic immobility induction and duration on halmahera walking shark (Hemischyllium halmahera)

Based on the results, tonic immobility can be applied as non-lethal method to Hemiscyllium halmahera during capture and physical examination such as morphometric and weight measurement and heart rate, and breathing frequency.

Effect of tonic immobility induction on selected physiological parameters in Oryctolagus cuniculus f. Domesticus rabbits

Many studies contain detailed descriptions of methods of inducing TI in rabbits, the most popular of which Effect of tonic immobility induction on selected physiological parameters in Oryctolagus cuniculus f.

Tonic immobility in the zebra shark, Stegostoma fasciatum, and its use for capture methodology

A novel, non-lethal capture method of zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, using tonic immobility, in the field is presented and is expected to reduce physiological markers of distress.

Blood pressure and heart rate during tonic immobility in the black tipped reef shark,Carcharhinus melanoptera

It is concluded that, during tonic immobility, sharks are able to receive afferent information from the ventilatory system and make appropriate responses via the vagus nerve.

Notes on the long-term transport of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini)

The capture and transport of scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini Griffith and Smith, 1834) historically has represented a difficult, expensive, and uncertain undertaking for the public

Tonic immobility as an anaesthetic for elasmobranchs during surgical implantation procedures

It is identified that tonic immobility provides an effective anaesthetic for surgical implantation in elasmobranchs, as it offers several benefits over chemical anaesthetics, both from a practical and from an animal welfare perspective.



Tonic immobility in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

It was found that either the occurrence of a loud noise immediately before induction or the presence of a stuffed Cooper's hawk increased the duration of immobility in some subjects, and the belief that tonic Immobility evolved as a predator defense in squirrel monkeys or one of their ancestors is supported.

Biphasic effects of serotonin on tonic immobility in domestic fowl

  • C. W. Hennig
  • Psychology, Biology
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
  • 1980

Strain differences among chickens in tonic immobility: evidence for an emotionality component.

It was argued that defecation, rather than being an absolute measure of fear or emotionality, may in fact be an intermediate response to gradual fear reduction.

Synthetic surfactants: A new approach to the development of shark repellents

The abundance, versatility, chemical stability, modifiability, and low price of detergents justify their use in further development of effective shark repellents.

Animal hypnosis: factual status of a fictional concept.

  • G. Gallup
  • Psychology, Biology
    Psychological bulletin
  • 1974
Notes that animal hypnosis, or tonic immobility, is an easily induced and readily quantifiable phenomenon found in many different species. Recent findings on the behavioral, ecological, chemical,

Habituation: a model phenomenon for the study of neuronal substrates of behavior.

An apparatus for cleaning and sterilizing objects, such as pharmaceutical caps, plugs and the like includes an autoclave chamber and a cleaning device having a cleaning drum mounted for a free