Inducing ametropias in hatchling chicks by defocus—Aperture effects and cylindrical lenses


Light-weight translucent plastic goggles with convex or concave rigid contact lens inserts were applied unilaterally to the eyes of young chicks. Convex and concave cylindrical lenses produced astigmatic refractive errors. The magnitude of the induced astigmatism was less than that of the inducing lens and varied with axis orientation. Decreased aperture… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(94)00235-E

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