Inducement of mitogen-activated protein kinases in frozen shoulders.

  title={Inducement of mitogen-activated protein kinases in frozen shoulders.},
  author={Katsuaki Kanbe and Kazuhiko Inoue and Yasuo Inoue and Qian Chen},
  journal={Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association},
  volume={14 1},
BACKGROUND Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are well-known molecules that play key roles in mechanical stress signals during skeletal development. To test our hypothesis that the synovium in frozen shoulders is induced by MAP kinases, immunohistochemical analyses for detecting expression and signal transduction of MAP kinases were performed in… CONTINUE READING