Indoxyl sulfate exacerbates low bone turnover induced by parathyroidectomy in young adult rats.

Low-turnover bone disease is one of the bone abnormalities observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is recognized to be associated with low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and skeletal resistance to PTH. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a representative uremic toxin that accumulates in the blood as renal dysfunction progresses in CKD patients… CONTINUE READING