Indoxyl sulfate and progression of renal failure: effects of a low-protein diet and oral sorbent on indoxyl sulfate production in uremic rats and undialyzed uremic patients.

Abstract

We have previously demonstrated that indoxyl sulfate is a stimulating factor for the progression of glomerular sclerosis in uremic rats. In this study we determined if a low-protein diet or oral sorbent (AST-120) could reduce the serum and urine levels of indoxyl sulfate in 5/6-nephrectomized uremic rats and undialyzed uremic patients. The uremic rats were treated by fasting or AST-120 for 2 days. The serum and urine levels of indoxyl sulfate dramatically decreased 1-2 days after fasting or AST-120 treatment. We then measured the serum and urine levels of indoxyl sulfate and calculated protein intake from urinary amounts of urea nitrogen using Maroni's equation in 80 undialyzed uremic patients with creatinine clearance less than 30 ml/min. The serum and urine levels of indoxyl sulfate were significantly lower in the patients on a low-protein diet than in those in the normal-protein diet group. Administration of AST-120 significantly decreased serum and urine levels of indoxyl sulfate in 22 undialyzed uremic patients. In conclusion, a low-protein diet or AST-120 reduced the serum and urine levels of indoxyl sulfate, a stimulating factor for glomerular sclerosis, in both uremic rats and undialyzed uremic patients.

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@article{Niwa1997IndoxylSA, title={Indoxyl sulfate and progression of renal failure: effects of a low-protein diet and oral sorbent on indoxyl sulfate production in uremic rats and undialyzed uremic patients.}, author={Toshimitsu Niwa and Saori Tsukushi and Michihito Ise and Takuro Miyazaki and Yoshiharu Tsubakihara and Akira Owada and Tatsuo Shiigai}, journal={Mineral and electrolyte metabolism}, year={1997}, volume={23 3-6}, pages={179-84} }