Characteristics of inflammatory bowel diseases have been hypothesized to resemble those of the syndrome of intestinal ulceration induced in the rat by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. However, no systematic studies have been undertaken to examine this possibility. Therefore, we have studied the influence of some pharmacological agents, such as steroids and salicylazosulfapyridine (SAS), which are clinically useful in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, and to review published data on other pharmacological approaches commonly used for the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases that have been shown to counteract indomethacin-induced intestinal toxicity. Orally administered SAS 100 to 800 mg/kg or dexamethasone 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg exerted dose-related, anti-ulcer activity, with ED50 values and 95% confidence limits of 145 (95–222) mg/kg SAS and 0.184 (0.152–0.224) mg/kg dexamethasone. Other treatments, including cholestyramine, lowresidue diets and antibiotics have also been reported to ameliorate clinical and experimental intestinal diseases. The clinical significance of present findings has been discussed.